Oriel Windows?!? What is this Jargon!?!?!

This week, we return to one of my favorite things: architectural jargon!

While you may think of it as useless architectural history, I promise you that it will come in handy someday during a trivia Tuesday.

Trust me.

Someday, someone will be impressed with your knowledge of oriel windows.

So, what are they exactly? My handy-dandy Guide to Vermont Architecture uses the following definition:

“Multi-sided window that projects from the wall of a building, and whose base does not reach the ground.”

If the window starts on the first floor then you can call it a “bay” window; bay windows can be more than one story in height much like oriel windows.

Another definition comes from Thought Co.:

“An oriel window is a set of windows, arranged together in a bay, that protrudes from the face of a building on an upper floor and is braced underneath by a bracket or corbel.”

Here’s a definition of oriel windows from John Britton’s, A Dictionary of the Architecture and Archaeology of the Middle Ages: Including Words Used by Ancient and Modern Authors in Treating of Architectural and other Antiquities: With Etymology, Definition, Description, and Historical Elucidation: Also, Biographical Notices of Ancient Architects, which was printed in 1838:

Oriel Windows Definition
Oriel Windows Definition 2nd Page

So, where’d the idea of these windows come from you’re probably wondering!

Well, oriel windows most likely originated in the Middle Ages, not just in Europe but also in the Middles East.

In Europe, it may have developed from the word for porch or gallery, “oriolum,” which is medieval Latin. As you can see there’s a connection between the words, “oriel” and “oriolum.” Merriam Webster’s dictionary points to the first known usage of the word in the 14th century while the Encyclopedia Britannica says “oriel” became “prevalent” in the 15th century and were often placed over gateways or entrances to manor houses and public buildings.

So why would you want an oriel window- besides using it to spy on who’s coming to the manor for dinner tonight? It also allowed more light into a room and expanded the flood plan. The window style also offered a way for air ventilation and keeping a room cooler, which would have been ideal in the Middle East. In the Middle East, this style of window first appeared in 12th century Baghdad during the Abbasid Period. The window was called, mashrabiya, and were known for their ornamental lattice screens. In the Middle Eastern architecture, they were typically found on the side of the buildings and/or on the courtyard side of a house. Through the ages, the mashrabiya often would be designed based on the current architectural styles of the time, for example during the 1920’s and 1930’s, the mashrabiya lattice work was inspired by the Art Noveau and Art Deco styles.

Here in the United States, oriel windows can be found on a variety of buildings with different architectural styles, such as: Tudor Revival, Gothic Revival, and Queen Anne.

In another exciting book found on Google Books, here’s instructions on how you would have constructed an oriel window in the 1840’s as detailed by Alfred Bartholomew in Specifications for Practical Architecture, Preceded by an Essay on the Decline of Excellence in the Structure and in the Science of Modern English Buildings; With the Proposal of Remedies for those Defects:

Constructing Oriel Windows
Constructing Oriel Windows 2nd Page

*I am not making up these titles of these books that I found on Google Books*

Oriel Window
This is the Arlington. It was originally a hotel in downtown Potsdam, NY. It’s now a mixed-use building with businesses on the first floor and apartments on the second and third floors. In addition to that awesome information, it has a wonderful oriel window that extends two floors.
Up Close and Personal
Close-up view of the Arlington’s oriel window.
Chinatown Architecture
Oriel windows seen in San Francisco’s Chinatown.
Oriel Windows of San Francisco
These triple-decker oriel windows can be found in San Francisco. Where exactly you’re probably wondering…I have no idea, I think they’re somewhere near the Palace of Fine Arts.
Oriel Windows of San Francisco
A collection of oriel windows with major Art Deco vibes. These are somewhere in San Francisco……no idea where though. Sadly, when I’m walking around cities taking photos of fun buildings I’m not always documenting the exact location.
Oriel Windows of San Francisco
This oriel window is also in San Francisco. The place is just filled of oriel windows. Good news is I know where this is located: 100 Carl St, San Francisco, CA 94117 (about a block away from the south-east corner of the Golden Gate Park).
Bay Window in Ogdensburg, NY
Plot twist, this isn’t an oriel window but a bay window! This house is located in Ogdensburg, NY (located next to the Post Office). Please, someone buy it and make it look beautiful again.

Resources and Further Information

Alfred Bartholomew, Specifications for Practical Architecture, Preceded by an Essay on the Decline of Excellence in the Structure and in the Science of Modern English Buildings; With the Proposal of Remedies for those Defects, (London: Gilbert and Rivington, Printers, St. John’s Square, 1840) 4691. https://books.google.com/books?id=82UkAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA80&dq=oriel+window&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiZ1p-zocPgAhVrrlQKHThgBWU4ChDoAQhcMAk#v=onepage&q=oriel%20window&f=false

John Britton, A Dictionary of the Architecture and Archaeology of the Middle Ages: Including Words Used by Ancient and Modern Authors in Treating of Architectural and other Antiquities: With Etymology, Definition, Description, and Historical Elucidation: Also, Biographical Notices of Ancient Architects (London: Printed by James Moyes, Castle Street, 1838) 337- 338. https://books.google.com/books?id=j2AJAAAAIAAJ&pg=PT18&dq=oriel+window&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiUv_KcocPgAhVDMnwKHbacDUoQ6AEIWjAJ#v=onepage&q=oriel%20window&f=false

(Let’s talk about Google Books. They’re amazing. You can read previews of many newer books but can also find the full text for many older books and periodicals, which can be fantastic when researching quirky architectural history topics.)

Jackie Craven, “The Oriel Window- An Architectural Solution, Look for the Bracket on the Bottom,” Thought Co, July 5, 2017: https://www.thoughtco.com/what-is-an-oriel-window-177517

Curtis B. Johnson, editor and Elsa Gilbertson, Principal Author, The Historical Architecture of Vermont: Guide to Vermont Architecture (The Vermont Division for Historic Preservation, 1996) 27.

Stephanie Przybylek, “Oriel Windows: Definition & Style”, Study.com, https://study.com/academy/lesson/oriel-windows-definition-style.html

Random Definitions-

Encyclopedia Brittanica, Definition for Oriel Window: https://www.britannica.com/technology/oriel

Meeriam-Webster Dictionary Definition for Oriel Window: https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/oriel%20window

Buffalo Architecture and History, Illustrated Architecture Dictionary: Oriel Window: https://buffaloah.com/a/DCTNRY/o/oriel.html

Wikipedia’s Pages on the Oriel Window and the Mashrabiya:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mashrabiya

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oriel_window

Balustrades? Balusters? What Is This Jargon!?!?

It’s been a while since we’ve talked about some architectural jargon, so that’s what we’re doing this morning!

So, balusters…. balustrades…. you’ve seen them, you’ve heard of them but really, what are they? Could you actually define them? Everything you’re about to read, will be on the test later. So pay attention!

A balustrade as defined by my handy-dandy “Guide to Vermont Architecture” says this:

“A row of vertical balusters or other elements topped by a handrail and used to edge stairways, porches, balconies, and roof lines.”[i]

While Architectural Digest writes this:

“A row of small columns topped by a rail.”[ii]

So, what exactly is a “baluster”?

It just so happens that a “baluster,” is one of number of terms that can be used to name a turned or rectangular upright support seen in the balustrade. Other names you may see include: “banister,” “column,’ “spindle,” or even “stair stick.”[iii] Personally, “stair stick” is my new favorite and will be the technical term I use going forth in any official building description I write ever again. That’s a joke, I’m like 90% sure no State Historic Preservation Office would be pleases to see balusters called “stair sticks.” The term, “baluster,” can also be used to described a type of metal candle stick, an upright furniture support, or event the stem of a brass chandelier.[iv]

Balusters and balustrades can be seen in a number of different forms and materials including wood, stone, metal, and plastic. In the history of baluster development, cast-stone balusters were first developed in Great Britain during the 18th century. While cast iron ones didn’t make an appearance until the 1840’s.[v]

The term, “baluster,” didn’t really come into use until the 17th century and originates from the Italian word, balaustro or balaustra, which in turn comes from the Latin word, balaustium. All of these words by the way means, “flower of the wild pomegranate.”[vi] We’ll come back to that interesting word in a moment.

Even though the word “baluster” and “balustrade” wasn’t in use until the 1600’s, the architectural element makes its first appearance in ancient Assyrian sculptural murals, also called “bas-reliefs,” which date all back to the 13th-7th century BC. In the murals, balusters and balustrades can be seen in palaces lining windows. This helps hone in on the function of a balustrade other than potentially being a decorative architectural feature, it helps reduce the possibility of a person falling. While balustrades make an appearance in ancient Assyrian art, we’re not sure exactly if there was a specific word used for the building element. Another interesting thing is that balusters and balustrades do not appear in ancient Greek or Roman ruins or art. The Romans did use a type of lattice structure though, crisscrossed panels called, transennae or clathii that could be constructed of wood, bronze, or even marble.[vii]

Balusters and balustrades as we know them did not reappear in the “modern” era until the Renaissance in Italy- not surprising because of the Italian origin of the word. The first known or maybe surviving first use of the balustrade in architecture is on the Pitti Palace in Florence constructed c. 1448. Another important, early example of the balustrade can be seen on the Drum of the Tempietti, which was designed by Donato Bramanti c. 1502. The Drum is at the Monastery of San Pietro in Montorio, which brings us back to the Italian and Latin root of “baluster.” Both origin words of “baluster” means the “blossoming flower of the pomegranate.” Most likely when you think of a single baluster, you think of a vase shaped mini column, which is actually what the blossoming pomegranate flower looks like! Some more trivia about balusters to impress your friends with include that the narrow section of the vase shape is known as the “sleeve,” while the wide section is called the “belly.” The balusters at the Drum of the Tempietti consist of two vase shapes connected at the “belly” end, which kind of looks like a candlestick and was probably inspired by Roman candlesticks. This type of baluster design is sometimes called the “double” baluster.[viii]

Last little tidbit on balusters and balustrades is that they can be found on staircases or porches, as well as along roof tops or roof lines, in a variety of different architectural styles including: Neoclassical, Colonial Revival, Federal, Georgian Revival, Beaux Arts, and Italian Renaissance Revival.

See below for a bunch of examples of balusters and balustrades I’ve photographed throughout the years!

Belvedere Castle
View of the vase-shaped balusters in their balustrade from the Upper Palace of the Belvedere Museum in Vienna, Austria. The baroque castle was constructed from 1717-1723.

The Great Hall of the Library of Congress
This is an interior view of the Library of Congress in Washington D.C. Specifically we’re looking at the ornately designed Great Hall, which along the upper level has a marble balustrade.

Main Reading Room of the Library of Congress
A view of the Main Reading Room in the Library of Congress, which also has a lovely balustrade, which consists of the “double” baluster. The Library of Congress is a Beaux Arts style building constructed from 1890-1897 and the main architect was Paul J. Pelz.

US Capitol Building
This is the balustrade that can be seen along the roof line of the US Capitol Building. The building was designed by William Thornton in the Neoclassical style and was constructed from 1793-1800.

Crocker Museum
Interior view of the Crocker Museum, which is located in Sacramento, CA. Looking up in the ballroom and you can see the wooden balustrade up above. The Crocker House was redesigned in the Italianate Style by local architect, Seth Babson and was officially completed in 1872.

Frederic Remington Museum
A view of the balusters and balustrade on the front porch of the Frederic Remington Museum located in Ogdensburg, NY. The house was originally constructed in 1810 for David Parish, an early resident.

Hearst Castle
A view of the front facade of Hearst Castle, which is located near San Simeon, CA. The castle was designed by Julia Morgan in the Mediterranean Revival style for William Randolph Hearst. The structure was worked and from 1919 to 1947. The balusters and balustrade visible on the upper level are in association with window and balcony openings and are most likely constructed of metal.

Vesuvio Cafe
Vesuvio Cafe in San Francisco features a balustrade with “double” balusters along the mini balcony created by the set of french windows on the second floor. The building was designed in 1916 by Italian architect, Italo Zanolini.

Add a comment if you have any questions or thoughts about balusters and balustrades!

Thanks for reading!

 

End Notes:

[i] Curtis B. Johnson, editor and Elsa Gilbertson, Principal Author, The Historical Architecture of Vermont: Guide to Vermont Architecture (The Vermont Division for Historic Preservation, 1996) 24.

[ii] “What Is a Balustrade?” Architectural Digest, July 31, 2015, https://www.architecturaldigest.com/story/ad-glossary-define-balustrade.

[iii] Buffalo Architecture and History, Illustrated Architecture Dictionary: Baluster. http://www.buffaloah.com/a/DCTNRY/b/baluster.html and Wikipedia’s page of Balusters: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baluster

[iv] Wikipedia’s page of Balusters: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baluster.

[v] Buffalo Architecture and History, Illustrated Architecture Dictionary: Baluster. http://www.buffaloah.com/a/DCTNRY/b/baluster.html

[vi] Calder Loth, “Balusters,” Institute of Classical Architecture and Art, June 1, 2011, https://www.classicist.org/articles/classical-comments-balusters/.

[vii] Ibid.

[viii] Ibid.

Fort Ross

This post took me a little longer than expected to finish up because I have a ton of photographs for Fort Ross. I hope you enjoy them all!

The main route from Point Reyes to Fort Ross is Route 1, which winds dangerously along the coast. Some “shoulders” of the roadway are literally the coastline with the Pacific Ocean with its waves crashing below the cliffs. There are many spots and turn-offs along the road to stop and take photographs, as you can imagine.

Google Maps oddly enough, directed me off of Route 1 and into the mountains and cow pastures along the coast. Eventually, I found myself on a single dirt lane road in the middle of the woods in my Kia Soul rental. I assumed immediately that Google Maps was off its rocker and had gotten me lost, which wouldn’t have been the first time. As I was driving along the dirt road, I figured it had to be an old logging road in the woods and since there were no easy ways to turn around, I decided to keep going because there had to be an end to the road. My favorite part of the dirt road detour was when Google Maps announced that I had arrived at my destination. I had in fact, not arrived at my preferred destination of Fort Ross but was still in the woods.

Fort_Ross_Map_Edited

It would seem that Google Maps had chosen a path less traveled by for me to adventure down. The single lane dirt road ends right across the street from the main entrance of Fort Ross; the dirt road is actually a path that goes by the old Russian orchards that are also part of the Fort. On that note, for those also adventuring along Route 1 to Fort Ross….trust me, just stay on Route 1, you’re drive right by Fort Ross. You won’t miss it.

Fort Ross is for the most part a reconstruction that has been beautifully done and is as historically accurate as possible. Even though it is greatly reconstructed, the Fort has a very interesting history and if I was to do a full run through of the land and it’s history, this was would become a book. So instead I’m going to focus on four different aspects of Fort Ross’ history: the Kashaya Tribe, the Russians, the Call Family, and the preservation efforts of the Fort.

The Kashaya:

Before the Russians began to settle the area that would eventually became Fort Ross, the first people known to live there were the Kashaya- they still live in the region today. The Tribe consider their name to be “People From the Top of the Land,” while the name “Kashaya,” meaning “expert gamblers” was given to them by a neighboring Pomo group. Originally, the Kashaya made the lands surrounding today’s Fort Ross, their home; roughly a range of 30 miles inland from the coast and 30 miles North-South from Gualala River to Duncan’s Point (South of the Russian River). An important village site of Mitini, which was near Fort Ross was important to the Kashaya territory, since it was the site of an assembly house where people would gather for ceremonial and social events.

In comparison to the other California Indians, the Kashaya experiences less acculturation and fewer forced removals to missions and reservations but that doesn’t mean it didn’t happen. When the Kashaya first encountered the Russians in 1812, the two groups came to an agreement over the use of a parcel of land, which was to become Fort Ross. The agreement was in accordance to a Russian policy that had been created to seek cooperation with local inhabitants that had previously been established in Siberia and Alaska. Fort Ross in a short time became a “tri-cultural community” of Russians, the Kashaya, and Aleut hunters where elements of culture and languages came together. Based on historic Fort records it also seems that the Coast Miwok Indians from Bodega Bay had a presence at the Fort as well.

After the Russians left, obvious changes occurred to the Kashaya’s way of life. Access to their traditional resources areas became more difficult because much of the land had become private property. Luckily, relationships with the Kashaya and new settlers near Fort Ross were better than in other parts of California and the country. By the 1870’s, the Kashaya were living in two villages located on property owned by Charles Haupt, a rancher who had married a Kashaya woman. The property was about 5 miles inland from Stewart’s Point, while a third, smaller village had been established near Stewart’s Point. In 1914, the federal government at the behest of Charles Haupt Jr. started the process to purchase a 40 mile acre tract of land four miles inland from Stewart’s Point, as a permanent location for the Kashaya; the location was not the best given that it is on an exposed ridge with poor soils and little water.

The reservation still exists today but the story doesn’t stop there, in 2015 after five years of fundraising through a group effort including the Kashia Pomo (another spelling of Kashaya), The Trust for Public Lands, Sonoma County, as well as other private foundations and groups were able purchase nearly 700 acres of ancestral lands of the Kashaya along Stewart’s Point. In exchange for the land, the Kashia agreed to build a public bluff-top trail along the coastline. The purchase enlarged their small reservation but about 18 times the size it originally was from the 1914 land purchase by Charles Haupt Jr.

The Russians:

Throughout the 1600’s the Russians had begun to move east across Siberia and the Pacific Ocean into Alaska. They set up posts in the Alaskan frontier and began working with Native Alaskan tribes to hunt for furs. From there, the Russians moved south, eventually pushing into California at the beginning of the 1800’s. In 1812, a team of 25 Russians and 80 Native Alaskans arrived in California with a number of goals, which included: establishing both a fort and a colony to grow crops (like wheat) that could be shipped back to Russian settlements in Alaska; hunt marine animals such as otter because the need was great for furs; and to trade with Spain. Spain’s colonies were located across Southern California and would have been a great opportunity for Russia to expand their holdings through trade. Another way to think about all of that, is that this is 1812, and Russia is entering the colony game really late in comparison to Spain, England, France, and now the newly established United States of America. In comparison the French, English, and Spanish already had established colonies as early as 15th century when Columbus, sailing for Spain, first landed in what is known today as South America. Along those lines throughout the 17th and into the 18th centuries France had a steady claim on the fur trade in North America along the St. Lawrence River.

Historic Images of Fort Ross from the museum on site.

Artifacts from the Chapel, as well as a photograph of the Chapel.

The Fort the Russians established was named, “Ross” as a play on words and their mother county, since imperial Russia was known as “Rossia.” Their plans of having a successful establishment never fully came to realization- the climate along the coast was not suited for growing the needed crops; from over hunting, the population of otters drastically declined; and the anticipated trading with Spain never occurred. By 1841, the Russian-American Company was looking to sell their holdings and get the hell out of America, which leads us to the Call Family.

Fort Ross, as I’ve mentioned consists of many replica buildings save for a couple of buildings. With that said, the buildings are authentic to Russian construction methods and exhibits within the buildings give an idea of what life would have been like during its Russian era.

Buildings at Fort Ross:

  The Rotchev House

The Rotchev House
The Rotchev House is the only surviving building from the Russian Fort. It was renovated in 1836 for Alexander Rotchev, the last manager of the fort, for him and his family. Eventually, the Call family would live in this house before building their own.

 Warehouse

Warehouse

   The Kuskov House

The Kuskov House
The Kuskov House was the house used by the first manager of Fort Ross, Ivan Kuskov. The replica was completed in 1983 and on the first floor it has storerooms and an armory, while the second floor has living quarters.

   The Official’s Quarters

The Official’s Quarters was reconstructed in 1981 and consists of a dining area, sleeping rooms, storage areas, and various other rooms.

   Blockhouses

The Northwest Blockhouse
The Northwest Blockhouse was reconstructed in the 1950’s.

View from the Blockhouse
View from the blockhouse, looking towards the Kuskov House and Chapel.

View from the Southeast Blockhouse
View from the Southwest Blockhouse towards the ocean and the cove where Russian ships would have been.

The Chapel

The Chapel
The Chapel was destroyed during the 1906 Earthquake and then rebuilt in 1916. The building received a new foundation, walls, and bringing the roof into the right position. In 1955, the Chapel was restored again to make the building closer to its original appearance. In 1960, the cupola was replaced with a more authentic Russian Roof. Sadly, in 1970, a fire completely destroyed the Chapel but it was rebuilt in 1973.

The Call Family:

After the Russians sold their Fort and associated land, the property changed hands a number of times and was used primarily for ranches. The family was care about this post, is the Call family who owned a portion of the original property including the Fort. In 1873, George W. Call purchased 2,500 acres and the Fort property with all of its buildings, eventuality he would go on to acquire a total of 7,000 acres and create a business enterprise with components in agriculture, livestock, and shipping. Under his ownership the property became a community center and a shipping port, which included a post office, store, saloon, hotel, wharf, warehouse, and even a school house.

Prior to purchasing the land, George W. Call had made a fortune in Chile and when he moved to the Fort Ross property he brought his wife, Mercedes Leiva, who is consistently called a beautiful Chilean woman and their four young children. When they Calls moved to their new property, they first lived at the Rotchev House. By 1878, there were a total of 8 Call children (five girls and three boys), which made George build a new house.

The Call Family House is still a part of the Fort Ross State Park site and the building is open for docent led tours the first weekend of each month. That was the main reason for when I visited the Fort when I went. The docent led tour was very informative about the Call Family. The coolest thing about the house is that it was is still very much the homestead of the Call Family; the last Call children passed away in 1976 but descendants of George and Mercedes’ children still live in the area. One of the family’s direct descendants was actually at the house the day I went and he was answering questions for visitors. The family still occasionally has reunions at the home from what my docent said. Another fun tidbit that my docent shared was that the Call family were, “pack rats,” meaning they kept everything and for that reason everything on display in the home was originally was owned by the Calls, which makes for a very real interpretation of the family’s home and the family’s life at Fort Ross. The other cool thing about the home is that parts of the Call House were originally parts of the Fort.

Call Family House

Time Line for Preservation Efforts of Fort Ross:

Fort Ross has a long history of historic preservation started in a way by George W. Call himself. During his family’s ownership of the property, the Rotchev House was maintained, first as the home of the Calls and then as the Fort Ross Hotel. At the same time, the Russian Official’s Quarters were renovated to be a saloon. The family also preserved the Chapel and used it for a number of things including a horse barn and for the occasional wedding.

1891- Interest in Fort Ross for its cultural and historical important as a sacred place for Russians, resulted in many pilgrimages to the site. One such pilgrim was Bishop Vladimir, who made a proposal to George Call to buy the Chapel and cemetery to save them from further deterioration. The purchase never happened, but Call did start putting a thought into preserving the site.

1897– Another Bishop from Russia pilgrimaged to the site- Bishop Nikolai who also attempted to obtain the Chapel and cemetery from Call. Again, nothing came from the talks but in September of that year, Call donated lumber to restore the Chapel for the use as a Sunday school.

1902– The California Historical Landmarks League is incorporated.

1903– William Randolph Hearst sponsors a Citizen’s Campaign to raise money to save several historic landmarks, including Fort Ross. The stockage portion of Call’s property is purchased with funds raised.

1906– Fort Ross becomes an official historic site; less than a month later, the San Francisco Earthquake damaged a number of the historic buildings at Fort Ross.

1916- Funding is made available to begin repairing the damaged buildings at Fort Ross. The organization, Native Sons and Native Daughters of the Golden West take special interest in the Chapel and use the area as a place to celebrate the July 4th for a number of years.

1925- The Russian Orthodox Congregation of Holy Trinity Cathedral in San Francisco are invited to a July 4th celebration by the Native Sons and Daughters; the Congregation still continues an annual July 4th pilgrimage to this day.

1928- Fort Ross becomes one of five historical monuments in the new California state parks system.

1936- A group from the San Francisco Russian community begin the initiative group for the memorialization of Fort Ross and begin publishing articles in Russian newspapers about the property’s history. The new year, the group creates the Russian Historical Society in America.

1945- The Society locates the lost bell of Fort Ross- it was at the Petaluma Adobe. The Society, along with the Native Sons and Daughters bring the bell back to the chapel in a special Labor Day celebration.

The original bell was destroyed in the 1970’s.

The current bell was recreated using materials from the original bell and a rubbing that had been made from the original.

1961- Fort Ross is designated a National Historic Landmark.

1962- Fort Ross becomes a State Historic Park after the State purchases 353 acres from the Call Family.

1966- Fort Ross is nominated to the National Register of Historic Places.

1970- The Rotchev House is nominated to the National Register of Historic Places. That same year, fire destroys the Chapel and the historic bell, less than a year later an arsonist sets fire to the Rotchev House, which luckily only burned the roof and attic.

1972- A new water supply system is built and plans are carried out to reroute Highway 1 (it had originally divided the stockage of the Fort). Federal money is available to restore the sites in the state. Various organizations come together to get funding for the “Restore Fort Ross Fund.” Key groups include the local Sea Ranch residents and several Russian-American groups. That same year, state parks director, William Penn Mott Jr. develops the first Citizens Advisory Committee for Fort Ross, which includes local residents, Russian Americans, and the Kashaya Pomo.

1976- The last of George and Mercedes Call’s children pass away.

1985- Ribbon cutting ceremony for the new Fort Ross Visitors Center

1990- The Citizens Advisory Committee is dissolved. The Fort Ross Interpretive Association continues the work the Committee had started.

2010- Fort Ross almost closes because of the state budget crises. Viktor Vekselberg, president of the Russian business group, Renova Group, meets with then Governor Arnold Schwarzengger to discuss plans to keep the Fort open, and creates the Renova Fort Ross Foundation to help with funding.

2012- Fort Ross celebrates its bicentennial!

This is all a very small snippet of the history of Fort Ross. There’s a lot more I could have went into detail on such as the Native Alaskans who came here with the Russians of the other ranchers who owned the Fort Ross property after the Russians sold the land. Visiting Fort Ross was super exciting and there wasn’t a lot of people there when I visited, so it was nice to be in the building by myself for the most part.

Views of the ocean from Fort Ross and the Call Family House

View from the Call Family House

Inside the Fort
From left to right: the Officials’ Quarters, the Rotchev House, Warehouse, the Northwest Blockhouse, and the Kuskov House.

There’s a lot more to learn about, so please check out some of the resources listed below for more information on this really amazing place.

As always thank you for reading!

Further Information and Resources:

Most of my information on Fort Ross comes from the following book I purchased during my visit:

Kalani, Lyn, Lynn Rudy, and John Sperry, ed. Fort Ross. Fort Ross Interpretive Association, 1998.

Sections that were relevant to my post include:

Parrish, Otis, “The First People,”pgs. 6-7.

Watrous, Stephen, “Fort Ross: The Russian Colony in California,” pg. 11.

“The Ranchers,” pgs.24-25

Sakovich, Maria, “Partners in Preservation,” pgs. 27-28.

“The Fort: Structural History and Reconstruction,” pgs. 29-38.

Information from the book can be found on the Fort Ross website under “History”: https://www.fortross.org/history.htm

Kashia Coastal Preserve

http://www.pressdemocrat.com/news/4615137-181/nearly-700-acres-of-sonoma

https://www.tpl.org/our-work/kashia-coastal-reserve#sm.0001vbxegvevcf8hsnq2df732en3d

https://www.goodnewsnetwork.org/farmer-returns-700-acres-of-california-coast-to-native-american-tribe/#.VjXzRL_rERb.facebook

Call Family House

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NR_rqwA-_6E

Fort Ross Almost Closes

https://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/21/us/fort-ross-park-saved-from-closing-by-renova-group-of-russia.html

https://www.sfgate.com/bayarea/article/Rich-Russian-comes-to-aid-of-Fort-Ross-3183955.php

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/travel/when-russia-colonized-california-celebrating-200-years-of-fort-ross-880099/

Rose Windows!?! What is this Jargon?!?!?

Since I’ve been in Sacramento, finding time to write blog posts has been difficult, the same goes for meeting new people other than those I work with. So a way I’m kind of working on both small issues, is by joining a Meet Up group that aimed at writing! There’s a lot of Meet Ups in Sacramento for so many different interests- in comparison there are no Meet Up groups in Northern New York and I’d never actually hear of Meet Up until being in California. So for the twoish months I’ve been going to a Sunday meet up for, “Shut Up and Write! Sacramento,” where I’ve been writing and pulling a bunch of posts together. It just then takes me a while to type everything up and edit my photographs before actually posting on my blog.

It’s been nice meeting new people who are passionate about writing and it’s nice to see them weekly and see how their progress on their own projects is coming along. The Meet Up I go to is at Shine, a really cute coffee shop at the corner of E and 14th Street. I usually get the Namaste Latte (a matcha latte with vanilla and honey), it’s super good!.

So this week’s post comes to you via my hour of writing at “Shut Up and Write!” It’s been a while since I’ve done a “What is this Jargon” post and today’s topic is……..Rose Windows.

It’s not really jargon sounding, is it? You probably had your hopes up that it was going to be something crazy like oriel….maybe next time it’ll be something outrageous. Any who. Rose Windows are exciting and they’re pretty and they kind of link back to by previous post about Grace Cathedral, which has two rose windows!

So “Rose Window” is a generic architectural term- see told you! Not jargon! A rose window is a term that can be used to refer to any circular window but typically is thought of as a window found in churches constructed in the Gothic architectural style- much like Grace Cathedral, which is a French Gothic style cathedral in San Francisco. The windows are often stained glass and are usually divided into segments by mullions and tracery.

There we go, some real jargon for ya! It’s like historic preservation inception, jargon within jargon…

Let’s get back on topic. So, where were we. Rose windows can also be referred to as a “wheel window” or even a “Catherine window,” a direct nod to St. Catherine of Alexandria, who was sentenced to be executed via a spiked wheel…fun side note, St. Catherine is a martyr who was most likely made up and possibly was based on death of the Greek female philosopher, Hypatia. Look it up, really interesting stuffs. While rose windows made a splash on the architectural scene by the middle of the 12th century in France, it’s reasonable to assume that the idea of this style of window came from the Roman oculus- a large circular windows-like opening that would allow light and air into a structure. Roman oculus can typically be found on the west facade of a Roman structure. From the Roman oculus, some examples of rose windows can be found in buildings that date to the Romanesque period (10th century).

By the Gothic period in France, rose windows can be found left and right in churches and cathedrals- typically at the west end of the nave (that’s the big central aisle) and at the ends of transepts (wings on the sides of the nave). A common scene depicted in rose windows includes the “Last Judgment,” especially in the west end, while the transepts would often depict “Mary.” Bar tracery in rose windows was officially introduced int the 13th century; that’s the stonework that supports the stained glass.

So obviously, I’ve got some awesome photographs to share of stained glass windows:

Memorial Hall, Harvard University:

Memorial Hall, HarvardMemorial Hall, Harvard

These photographs are of Memorial Hall on Harvard University’s campus in Boston. It’s a High Victorian Gothic building (Neo-Gothic is another term) that was designed by William Robert Ware and Henry Van Brunt. The Memorial Hall was constructed to honor Harvard men that had fought for the Union during the Civil War. The stained glass window measures 708 square feet and is called McDonald’s Virtues Window. Further information on Memorial Hall:

http://sites.fas.harvard.edu/~memhall/history.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memorial_Hall_(Harvard_University)

St. John’s in the Wilderness:

St. John's in the WildernessSt. John's in the Wilderness

This little church is located in Paul Smiths, NY in the Adirondacks. The Episcopal Church was constructed in 1930 and designed by William G. Distin. You can only see a small portion of the rose window in the photographs but if you follow the link you can see interior images of the church: http://townofbrighton.net/sjinthew.htm

Trinity Church:

Trinity ChurchInterior of Trinity Church

Trinity Church in Potsdam, NY is constructed of fantastic Red Potsdam Sandstone. The church was originally constructed in 1835 as a Federal style building with Gothic elements. In 1886, it was enlarged and renovated into the High Victorian Gothic style church it is today; designs were by James P. Johnson. The stained glass window was a gift of Thomas S. Clarkson and was installed in 1886; the window has many Christian symbols with a dove in the center. The church, as is many of the Potsdam Sandstone buildings in St. Lawrence County, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Further information: https://www.northcountrypublicradio.org/news/trinitywindows/trinitywindows.php

Zion Episcopal Church:

Zion Episcopal ChurchInterior Zion Episcopal Church

This rose window can be seen in the Zion Episcopal Church in Colton, NY. It’s also constructed of Potsdam Sandstone and it’s construction was financed by the Clarkson family in 1883. James P. Johnston also designed this church and it was inspired by the Trinity Church in Potsdam. The rose window is located in the south facade and is 10 feet in diameter. The sections of the window represent the 12 apostles surrounding a dove. The Zion Episcopal Church is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Further information:   https://coltonepiscopal.wordpress.com/history-of-zion/

Swill Burger:

Swill BurgerSwill Burger Rose Window

This is the former 2nd German Baptist Church in Rochester, NY; the church was constructed in 1890. Today the building is no longer a church but the home of Swill Burger. While one of the rose windows is gone, the other one still exists and helps point to the former history of the building. More information can be found about Swill Burger and the church in a previous post:

https://adventurewithcourtney.wordpress.com/2017/05/07/food-adventures-in-rochester/

Herring-Cole Hall:

Cole Reading RoomCole Reading Room, Rose Window

Herring-Cole Hall is located on campus of St. Lawrence University in Canton, NY. The current building was constructed in two different installments both of which are of Potsdam Sandstone. The Herring Library was constructed between 1869-1871 and was designed by the firm, Huberty & Hudson. The Cole Reading Room was added between 1901-1902 and was designed by Joseph Smith. The rose window located at the east of the hall was made by the New York firm, J. & R. Lamb and the window is of the college’s seal. The building is listed on the National Register of Historic places. Further information: http://hcap.artstor.org/cgi-bin/library?a=d&d=p1644

Resources and Further Information on Rose Windows:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rose_window

https://www.britannica.com/technology/rose-window

http://dragon_azure.tripod.com/UoA/Med-Arch-Rose-Window.html

https://study.com/academy/lesson/rose-windows-definition-design-symbolism.html

https://www.dartmouth.edu/~matc/math5.geometry/unit9/unit9.html

http://www.buffaloah.com/a/DCTNRY/r/rose.html

Catherine Wheel” and Saint Catherine; My information came from Wikipedia but there are some sources under Note number 7 about Catherine and Hypatia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catherine_of_Alexandria

 

Grace Cathedral, San Francisco

I’m now back in Sacramento after being home for a couple of weeks on vacation. The flight back was luckily, uneventful and there was only one delay at the tiny Massena, NY airport, which didn’t impact the other flights I had in Albany, NY and Chicago, IL.

This post is going to be focusing on another single building. I’ve been doing a lot of those lately because there’s so many awesome buildings that deserve recognition plus it makes you realize that all old buildings have a great story just waiting to be told. Today’s property is, Grace Cathedral, which is the cathedral church of the Episcopal Diocese of California and the third largest Episcopal Cathedral in the county; I saw the cathedral the last time I was in San Francisco on my own. The reason I’m focusing on this property today is because it’s Martin Luther King Jr. Day and on March 28, 1964 the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. gave a sermon during the Cathedral’s celebrations for its completion and consecration. I didn’t know that information before I visited the Cathedral; the reason I went to check it out was because it was listed as a cool place to visit at the San Francisco Downtown Hostel that I had stayed at when I was there last.

Exterior View
Look at those twin towers, they remind me of Notre-Dame Cathedral in Paris!

Another Exterior View
The cathedral was designed by Lewis Hobart in the French Gothic style.

Grace Cathedral is located on Nob Hill, and it was the last place I was visiting on the Saturday and it was already late in the day- so I had to book it, which is easier said than done since San Francisco is so hilly. The hours of the Cathedral are Sundays 8-7, Thursdays 7-6, and the other days of the week are 8-6. Throughout the week there ares services and many other events going on, so if you’re interested in visiting, I would suggest double checking their website to see whats going on during your visit. For example when I arrived at the Cathedral it was around 4 pm and there were signs up saying they would be closing at 5 pm to set up for a concert later that evening.

Grace Cathedral has its beginnings with the Gold Rush of 1849- the year it was founded. The church was the “daughter” of the historic Grace Church (I assume the one located in Manhattan). The church went through a some location, building, and even name changes during its early history but all of that came to a halt thanks to the Great 1906 San Francisco Earthquake, which completed destroyed the church. After the earthquake, the family of railroad baron and banker, William Henry Crocker,** gave their Nob Hill property for a new a cathedral to be constructed on- the Crocker’s mansion had also been destroyed during the earthquake. A cornerstone was laid in 1910 but construction really did not begin for a number of years until 1927. The cathedral was designed by architect, Lewis Hobart, who designed the property in the French Gothic style as a nod to the Crocker family; a major inspiration of the cathedral is Notre Dame located in Paris, France.

During the Great Depression, work on the Cathedral completely stopped and it officially wasn’t “completed” until 1964. The interior vaulting and the cast-stone walls are actually unfinished. Other really cool details of the building is that it’s frame is raw concrete and steel, which is unusual for cathedrals. There is some pre-fabricated cast stone for decorative details and Guastavino acoustic tiles were used for the vaulting. Other architectural features that indicate its a French Gothic style building include the twin towers, the building’s cruciform plan, rose window, and the polygonal apse (I sense a number of new jargon words to explore at a later date).

Another thing to mention before I get into some of the really amazing things of the building is that there are docent led tours of the building throughout the month Since my visit was spur of the moment, I didn’t really have time to plan my visiting during a tour but Grace Cathedral has a fantastic App that can be downloaded on your phone to do self-guided tours, which is what I used when I was there. The App is the reason I learned that the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. gave a sermon there in 1964.

Both the interior and the exterior of the cathedral are beautiful and offer a lot to see. Obviously, I had a very limited window of time to see the cathedral so I wasn’t able to see everything, luckily though a member of the Cathedral’s staff who was there closing parts of the building in preparation of the concert was kind enough to let me into the Chapel of Grace, which is the oldest part of the cathedral.

Chapel of Grace
I didn’t take that many photographs of the Chapel of Grace because I was speaking with the staff of the Cathedral. This is the one good photograph I took. The Chapel of Grace features Charles Connick windows (which are known for their blue colors), a Flemish altarpiece, and a French Knight Hospitaller altar, c. 1520.

The gentleman who I think was either a deacon or verger for the cathedral stated talking to me and asking if I had visited the cathedral before. Talking with the staff member, I told him I didn’t know anything about the Cathedral and that it was the first time visiting the building but that the app was really useful for learning about the building, I also told him I didn’t know that Martin Luther King Jr. had spoke here during the Civil Rights Movement. And that’s when the behind-the-scene history adventure happened. The staff member said that he could show me the room that Dr. King prepared and got ready in before his sermon. The room is off the Chapel of Grace and I don’t think is open to the public. The gentleman told me that he believed the room was mostly unchanged since some of the furniture in the room could be seen in historic photographs of Dr. King in the same room. It was also suggested that I go check out the pulpit and that it was okay to step up into it. It was a little too much for me to do, so I didn’t mainly because I was having a lot of feelings, It was kind of like that scene in Wayne’s World when Garth and Wayne meet Alice Cooper and say, “We’re not worthy” or something along those lines. That’s kind of how I felt being told I could go stand in the same pulpit that really amazing people like the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. have spoken from. Hopefully that makes sense.

The following are some links from Grace Cathedral’s YouTube page where they have video recordings of the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s sermon:

Part 1: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=so8kSH8IwIA

Part 2: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zaJOKsFfId0

Pulpit
Besides the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., Dr. Jane Goodall, the Dalai Lama, and the Archbishop Desmond Tutu have also preached from this pulpit.

View Down the Nave
I was standing in the apse of the cathedral looking down the nave (central aisle) towards the east rose window. The pulpit can be seen to the far left of the photograph.

The following area other art and architectural features of the cathedral that are amazing:

“The Gift”

"The Gift"
The stained glass window seen at the top of the photograph was the last to be installed in the cathedral. The window was created by Narcissus Quagliata and depicts out galaxy in a human silhouette.

"The Gift"
A closer view of “The Gift” stained glass window.

AIDS Chapel

AIDS Interfaith Chapel Altarpiece
Another thing I did not know about Grace Cathedral is the work that the congregation has done towards the AIDS crisis in San Francisco. This altarpiece, “The Life of Christ” was created by New York pop artist, Keith Haring in 1990 and was his last work before his own death from AIDS. The piece was obtained by his friends, Yoko Ono and local San Francisco activist, Frank Malifrando for the cathedral. The chapel was completed  and dedicated in 2000.

Stained Glass Windows:

Rose Window
This is the rose window located in the south transept.

Stained Glass Windows
These windows are located in the apse and are from the studio of Charles Connick of Boston. The cathedral has a total of 34 of his windows, which is the largest collection on the west coast.

Mary Magdalene Icon
This painting is located near the Chapel of Grace. The painting was done by Robert Lenz, a Franciscan Friar and dedicated in 1990 by the first woman bishop, Bishop Barbara Harris. The egg that Mary Magdalene holds and points to is symbolic of resurrection.

Murals

There are a ton of murals along the walls of Grace Cathedral. A number of the murals were done by Jan Henryk De Rosen, a Polish painted who lived in exile in the United States after 1939. De Rosen was born in Poland to Jan Rosen and Wanda Hantke. His father was also a painter (Polish historical and genre) who worked at the court of the Russian Czars, Alexander III and Nicholas II. As a child, De Rosen moved to Paris to live with his sisters, Maria and Zofia (a sculptor) and from there enlisted in the French Army during World War 1. After the war he moved back to Poland and studied to be a painter in Warsaw. His painting skills were very much in high demand and he painted murals within many churches and cathedrals across Europe. He came to the United States in 1939 at the request of the Polish ambassador to paint murals at the Polish embassy in Washington DC. With the outbreak of World War 2, he stayed here in the United States where he taught and continued painting.

Murals Along the South Wall
The murals seen in this image are: “Saint Augustine and King Ethelbert” and “Gov. Portola and Fra Junipero Serra Founding of Misison at Monterey” both by De Rosen and date to 1949/50.

Saint Francis and Clare
This mural was also painted Jan De Rosen in 1949.

Chapel of the Nativity
This is the Adoration mural at the Chapel of the Nativity. This mural was completed in 1946 by De Rosen.

Murals Along South Aisle
The two murals were completed by Bolivian-born, Antonio Sotomayor. They are named: ” Grace Church -1906 Burning of parish after 1906 earthquake” and “United Nations Founding of the UN in San Francisco.” Both date from 1983.

Ghiberti Doors

The Gates of Paradise

These doors are replicas of the famed Ghiberti Doors, The Gates of Paradise. The originals were installed at the Baptistry of the Duomo in Florence, Italy. The original doors were designed by Lorenzo Ghiberti and worked on by himself, his son, and the men in his workshop, which took them 27 years to complete. In 1990, the originals were housed in the Duomo Cathedral’s museum and replicas took their on the actual building. So how does Grace Cathedral have a set of replica Italian Renaissance doors who ask?

Way back during WW2, the original doors were removed and hidden. Bruno Bearzi, the master founder and superintendent of the Florence’s art works, had them in his care where he cleaned them and had molds made with the intention of creating replicas to put in place of the originals and place the originals in a museum. That didn’t happen until 1990. But hearing that the molds and replicas existed, Grace Cathedral architects contacted Bearzi in the late 1950’s. Through the generosity of donors, Grace Cathedral was able to purchase the replicas and they were in place by November 20, 1964. The doors are made entirely of bronze with the sculptured portions finished in gold. Each door is 16 feet high, 4 inches think and 5 feet wide. Biblical events are depicted in the panels of the doors.

 

Outdoor Labyrinth 

Labyrinth
The cathedral has two labyrinths. This one is located outside of the cathedral and is made of granite and is available to walk through the maze all the time. There is another labyrinth inside of the building. The labyrinth measures 707 feet long.

So after the wonderful and very short visit I had at the cathedral, I would highly suggest visiting it, if you’re in San Francisco. I know I would really like to visit it again and possibly join a docent led tour since there’s probably a lot I missed. Let me know what you think!

Thanks for reading 🙂

Below are some resources I used, most of the information came from brochures I collected while at Grace Cathedral and the websites helped supplement what the brochures had summarized. There’s also some links to my other blog posts that are linked to this one, like the Crocker Museum and the National Mall, which the Lincoln Memorial is part of. The Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. gave his “I Have a Dream Speech” there in 1963.

Further Information:

**William Henry Crocker was the nephew of Edwin B. Crocker of Sacramento whose home is now part of the Crocker Art Museum:

https://adventurewithcourtney.wordpress.com/2017/06/21/portrait-of-a-building-the-crocker-art-museum/

The Washington Mall:

https://adventurewithcourtney.wordpress.com/2017/02/15/afternoon-in-the-capital-history-monuments-and-thoughts/

Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. in San Francisco:

http://www.sfgate.com/bayarea/article/MLK-Day-Martin-Luther-King-Jr-San-Francisco-10860349.php

Grace Cathedral:

https://www.gracecathedral.org/history-art-architecture/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grace_Cathedral,_San_Francisco

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jan_Henryk_de_Rosen

Portrait of a Building: The Winters House

It’s been awhile. I’ve been super busy with work in California and just haven’t had a lot of time to write. I have been able to see quite a few cool places: San Francisco, Hearst Castle, Tahoe National Forest hiking trails, Old Sacramento and a number of Gold Rush towns. I hope to share those awesome adventures on this blog in the near future but in the mean time I thought I’d do a simple post on one building.

A few weekends ago, I drove into downtown Sacramento to get a hair cut (a lob for those concerned) and that resulted in me getting dessert for lunch, exploring a used bookstore, and taking a number of photos of a few cute tiny Victorian houses in the area.

Rick's Dessert Diner
Chocolate Coconut Cream Pie….it was as amazing as it looks and a reasonable choice for lunch. Rick’s Dessert Diner is set up like a 1950’s shop and is located on J Street in Midtown Sacramento.

Victorian House No. 1
One of the adorable homes I walked by while exploring the residential section of Midtown. It has much spindles.

Victorian Home No. 2
Another home I spotted while walking around the residential area of Midtown. The stained glass window and pediment (triangular shape in the roof above the porch) were very delicate looking.

One of the houses I photographed had a “name” or maybe more of a label “label,” called “Winters House.” I figured if the house has a name, it must have a story, and this house does.

Lower Stairs
The home has a label, so it must be important!

Winters House is listed on the National Register of Historic Places under Criteria C, which means its architectural significant! Winters House is important because of it’s Queen Anne-Eastlake style and because of its size. It’s one of the largest Victorian homes left in Sacramento!

The home was constructed in 1890 for Herman Winters, a local successful merchant, who was a German immigrant. When the home was constructed, it was located on the outskirts of Sacramento in an area considered to be the, “gypsy camping grounds” (words from the National Register nomination, not mine). Through the rest of the 1890’s the area developed into a residential area outside of the city- kind of like suburbs; today the area is known as Mid Town.

Winters hired experienced craftsmen to give the three-story home many intricate, wooden, ornamental details. The home has an asymmetrical front facade with key elements including: the bay window, stained glass windows, a sunburst pediment, scroll work sunbursts, brackets, lower porch balustrade, various shingle and wooden patterns, and overall delicate spindle work. According to the National Register nomination, the interior also consists of intricate details such as carved mantel spindles, tile work surrounding two fire places, and trim details. The home exemplifies what it means for a building to be a Queen Anne- Eastlake Victorian home.

Side No. 1
Side view of the Winters House. You can easily see all of the spindle work and the fanciful woodwork on the exterior of the home. These are key architectural elements for Queen Anne- Eastlake Style homes. 

Up the Stairs
Looking up the stairs of the home. This is a great view to see all the little details going on with the front facade of the home. The rose motifs are lovely. The color scheme is also amazing. The current owners have done a wonderful job.

Side No. 2
The other side view of the home, you can see  that the home was raised a little bit and there is a flat under the first floor- Effie Winters did this in 1909.

Winters passed away in 1904 and his money, store, and home were divided between his widow and his two children from his first marriage. His widow, Effie Winters, inherited the home and put a lot of money into maintaining the home during her life. For example, Effie had the home elevated by ~ 2 feet in 1909 to build a flat under the first floor.

The interesting story of the home lies with Effie Winters. Apparently, Effie’s wealth and eccentricities did not sit well with her brother, Frank. In 1911, he petitioned the courts to get here declared incompetent. Luckily, the courts ruled in Effie’s favor based on her success in managing her inheritance from Herman. But that didn’t stop Frank’s crusade to have his sister declared of an “unsound mind.” Effie passed shortly after her brother petitioned the courts and when her will was read, Frank contested it because the primary beneficiary was L. S. Jones, her minister. The court records indicate that there was an investigation into the life and mental well being of the deceased Effie Winters. Records show that she had had a severe accident in 1901 when she was thrown from a buggy and hit a street car. She was unconscious for a number of days and when she finally pulled through, she had bouts of physical and mental distress; at least once, spent time in an asylum in Stockton, CA where she claimed to be the wife of Jesus Christ; she eventually was released. Her minister and others gave testimony to her character and lifestyle. It seems that those testimonies were not enough though and a postmortem autopsy was performed for examine her brain. Based on the testimony of five doctors who claimed Effie had a “small” brain, which meant she was of an “unsound mind” during life and in writing her will.

From the court finding, Frank, inherited the home she had lived in during her life. He did not keep the house for long and the Winters House went through a number of owners. That is until 1998, when the new owners began the long process of restoring the home to its former glory and getting the home placed in the National Register of Historic Places.

That Block

Resources and Further Information:

All of the information on the Winters House came from the National Register Nomination, prepared by Vickie M. Cosentino, 1998. See the following links for more information on the home and to see the National Register Nomination in its entirety.

http://noehill.com/sacramento/nat1998001634.asp

https://npgallery.nps.gov/AssetDetail?assetID=ee167350-0063-4946-a3bb-6237230ef883

https://npgallery.nps.gov/GetAsset/ee167350-0063-4946-a3bb-6237230ef883

What is This Jargon!?! Art Deco and Streamline Moderne???

Last week I was in downtown Sacramento for a chocolate tasting with co-workers and I had an opportunity to walk around 9th and 10th Streets in between J and K Streets- basically a square around the block.

I took a number of photos and wanted to share those images with you….and tell you about some jargon!

Art Deco.

Streamline Moderne.

They’re jargon and they’re architectural terms. Art Deco is a style that appeared in Paris in the early 1900’s in the construction of two different apartment buildings. The architects were Henri Sauvage and Auguste Perret. The apartment buildings were constructed of reinforced concrete- used for the first time for residential buildings in Paris. The architectural design of the buildings consisted of clean lines, rectangular forms, and there were no decorations on the facade. The term applies to not only architecture but to visual arts and design. The name, “Art Deco” comes from Art Décoratifs a phrase used during the International Exhibition of Modern Decorative and Industrial Arts that was held in Paris in 1925. In general Art Deco is associated with luxury and modernity; expensive materials were used with superb craftsmanship. Streamline Moderne is an architectural term used for a later styleof Art Deco seen during the 1930’s. Below are lists of the features seen in both types of styles.

Specific Features:

Art Deco:

Smooth Wall Surfaces

Stucco, Stone, Metal, Polychromy

Simple, Geometric Forms and Motifs

Vertical Emphasis

Rectangular Forms

Streamline Moderne:

Curved Forms

Stucco, Fluted/Pressed Metal, Ribbon Windows, Glass Block Windows

Long Horizontal Lines

Nautical Elements

Horizontal Emphasis

Curved Walls

Flat Roof lines

The following are images that I look around the Blocks of 9th and 10th Street, in between J and K Streets. They are in the order of which I took the photographs, where I started on 10th Street, walked up Kayak Alley, arrived on 9th Street and then eventually walked down J Street back to 10th Street. There were only a few buildings I could find information on; one building is listed on the National Register of Historic Places; other information came from historic photographs of the streets and from the Pacific Coast Architectural Database created by the University of Washington. 

1118 10th Street

Looking Up
This is the Forum Building. It was constructed in 1911. It definitely has Art Deco detailing around the main entrance and the general vertical feeling of the building. In 2000, rehabilitation work was done on the facade to preserve its wonderful details!

Forum Building
The front doors of the Forum Building.

Store Fronts on 9th StreetBuilding DetailBlack Birds

Ruhstaller Building
The blue building is the Ruhstaller Building, which is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. It was constructed in 1898 for the business man, Frank J. Ruhstaller. The building is eclectic in that in combines a number of architectural style features including Queen Anne, Romanesque, and even Art Deco motifs.

Corner of 9th Street and J Street
Another view of the Ruhstaller Building. The building was used by Frank J. Ruhstaller for his business offices, for the Buffalo Brewing Company/ SPace was rented to doctors and other business. For a time the Elks Club has space in the building. The tall building seen behind the Ruhstaller Building is the California-Western States Life Insurance Company headquarters.

Building Detail on J Street
A view of the California-Western States Life Insurance Company headquarters and its immediate neighbor.

California-Western States Life Insurance Building
Looking up at the California-Western States Life Insurance Company headquarters. The building was designed by George C. Sellon and built in 1926. The building is 14 stories tall.

Side Walk DetailBuildings on 10th StreetCorner of 10th Street and K StreetBuilding Detail on 10th Street

Sources and Further Information-

Sacramento Buildings: http://pcad.lib.washington.edu/building/19942/

http://sacramento.pastperfectonline.com/search?utf8=%E2%9C%93&search_criteria=10th+street&searchButton=Search

Rahstaller Building: https://npgallery.nps.gov/pdfhost/docs/NRHP/Text/82002237.pdf

Architectural Styles: All of these links have wonderful photos of significant buildings that are designed in these architectural styles, check them out!

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Art_Deco

http://www.architecturaldigest.com/gallery/worlds-most-beautiful-art-deco-buildings

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streamline_Moderne

https://architecturestyles.org/art-deco/

 

Portrait of a Building: The Crocker Art Museum

Currently for work, I am living outside of Sacramento, California in Rancho Cordova. I have the weekends off, so I’ve been using those days to explore cool places in California. This past weekend, I visited the Crocker Art Museum, which is located on O Street in Sacramento. The streets in downtown Sacramento are named either by a letter or a number- it’s really interesting!

Front Facade
The Crocker Mansion can be called a number of things: Italianate, Italian Villa, and can even be said to be inspired by Mannerism of 16th Century Italy. Mannerism in architecture is characterized by visual trickery and unexpected elements. The exterior facade is constructed of weathered stucco over-coating.

The Crocker Mansion that makes up part of the museum complex was constructed in 1853 for pioneer banker, B. F. Hastings. The home was designed by Seth Babson. The original style of the home was classical in style.

In 1868, Judge Edwin B. Crocker purchased the property, which included the home and out buildings. Judge Crocker, was a judge for the supreme court for the state of California. When the home was purchased Judge Crocker and his wife, Margaret, had an extensive art collection that had been started by a trip to Europe. The Crocker family commissioned Seth Babson to renovate the home that he had designed originally in the 1850’s. The new plans included changing the style of the home into an Italianate Villa mansion and to add a gallery for the art collection to be displayed. These renovations were completed by 1872. The following images show the interior of the home:

 

The Crocker family were also keen on supporting social and civil causes in Sacramento. By 1885, Edwin had passed away and Margaret worked to establish an art museum from their collection. The museum was originally named the “E. B. Crocker Art Gallery” and was given to the city and placed in “trust for the public.”

History Plaque
This plaque can be found on the first floor of the historic building near the original front doors.

In 1887, Margaret moved east to New York, to be closer to her adult children. The E. B. Crocker Art Gallery happened to be the first public art building founded in the Western United States. The following are images of artwork I saw at the museum. The Museum allows non-flash photography throughout the galleries. All rights to the artwork are of the Crocker Art Museum:

 

Sometime after Margaret passed away in 1901, the building was given to the Fairhaven Home for Girls and then basically abandoned. It remained vacant until 1911, when the City of Sacramento purchased the property with donated funding from a Mrs. Sloat Fassett….Mrs. Fassett actually was Jennie Crocker, one of the daughters of Edwin and Margaret!

In more recent years the art museum has continued to flourish. In 1970, the Crocker Art Gallery was listed on the National Register of Historic Places and became a state historic landmark.

National Register of Historic Places Plaque

1989, saw the building go through a number of renovations. The main home and the art gallery were connected and the historic facade was completely restored. In 2000, plans were started to construct a new addition to the historic building and within 10 years, the Teel Family Pavilion was opened. This new space basically tripled the square footage of the museum, allowing for more room galleries, administrative offices, and educational spaces.

Italianate and Modern Architecture Meet

Sources and Further Information:

https://www.crockerart.org/about

http://www.haunted-places.com/crocker.htm

https://npgallery.nps.gov/NRHP/GetAsset/e671de17-3822-4558-bd13-f76532fc2ae7?branding=NRHP

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mannerism

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apsara

Board and Batten!?! What is this Jargon?!?

This month’s jargon term is, “board and batten” or “board-and-batten,” depending on whether you’re using the term as an adjective or noun; for the record, hyphenate when using the term as an adjective. Every now and then, this type of exterior siding many be called, “barn siding,” because many barns across North America are constructed with this.

The actual definition of “board and batten” from my handy-dandy Guide to Vermont Architecture is this, “Exterior siding of flush wide, vertical planks with narrow wooden strips (battens) covering the joints.”

Historically, board and batten would refer to siding built of wood but given today’s building material options, this siding can be made of plastic, metal, or even fiberglass. Board-and-batten siding can be seen on informal styled architecture, think country homes, churches, and/or barns. During the Victorian era it would have been seen as an architectural feature on Carpenter Gothic homes.

So, board-and-batten siding has an interesting back story. Basically, people built in this style because of a lack of materials plus it helps create a stronger and more energy efficient wall. You’re probably wondering what the hell I’m talking about…

Imagine yourself, a recent arrival to the New World. There’s extensive, old growth forests that you’re not familiar with; England really doesn’t have forests like this anymore. You are also in desperate need of a shelter for yourself and family. Cutting down trees and building a log house would be the easiest and quick; you only have axes and saws and there are no saw mills yet built. The log house is easy to build, for the most part, the issue is that the felled tress do no exactly fit together, so there are gaps that you and your family fill in with moss, leaves, sticks, and mud. It mostly does the job…but there’s still a cold draft during the winter. By the way, you’re not the only family that needs to build a quick home plus there’s also an extreme logging occurring in the New World with lumber being shipped back to Europe. The forests are slowly depleted but houses still need to be built because of the increasing numbers of colonists. Eventually a town is built up around where you and your family settled and a saw mill in constructed. Because of the lack of trees and a new sawmill, newer settlers are building there houses out of planks and strips of wood. Out of one felled log, a lot of planks can be planed, meaning it is most cost effective. The seams between vertical standing planks can easily be covered with narrow wood strips (batten), keeping the cold out during the winter.

For an actual visual of a log home located in Northern New York, check out this link: http://www.watertowndailytimes.com/article/20110108/DCO01/301089932. The article is about an actual log cabin that was reconstructed to represent the home of the first settler in Parishville, Luke Brown and his family. In the photos accompanying the article, you can see the space in between the stacked logs.

Check out the following images to see buildings constructed with board-and-batten siding. There are no spaces in between planks!

Centennial
This patriotic home is one of the many summer cottages located in Thousand Island Park on Wellesley Island in the 1000 Islands Region. The battens are painted red while the boards are white. The home was constructed in 1876. The cottage is an example of Eastlake wood detailing, stick style elements, and I would call it Carpenter Gothic.

The Ol' Station
This is a convenient store located in Blue Mountain Lake in the Adirondacks. This photo was taken way back in 2015 on the way home from a Dave Matthews concert in Saratoga Springs. As of this post, the store might be permanently closed…but hopefully the building is still there and maybe a new tenant is in the building.

Buildings from Upper Canada Village:

Blacksmith and Wheelwright
This is a building seen at Upper Canada Village. The living history museum consists of a number of buildings that have been moved from around Canada to form this village showing what life would have been like in the 1800’s. This building combines board and batten on the upper story with squared log siding on the first floor. There are a number of buildings with this combination of siding at Upper Canada Village.

Union Cheese Shop
This is another building at Upper Canada Village. The cheese shop shows 19th century techniques and uses period equipment to produce cheese that can be purchased at the Village’s store.

Masonic Lodge
This is the Masonic Lodge at Upper Canada Village. It is a 1863 building that was moved to the Village in 2008 from the Village of Kars in south-west Ottawa. The building is constructed on board and batten.

Hallstatt, Austria:

A Building in Hallstatt
This is a building located in Hallstatt, Austria. Hallstatt is located in Upper Austria and is on the western shore of Hallstatter See (lake). The village and surrounding area is a World Heritage Site because of it’s wonderful history and culture. I’m not very sure about the history of the building or it’s current use. I assume it might be an inn along with being someone’s permanent residence.

Another Hallstatt Building
This building is also located in Hallstatt, Austria. It looks like it could be a barn but I have a feeling it might be another house. Hallstatt is part of Salzkammergut, in the eastern Alps. The village has a very rich history spanning all the way back to the Iron Age because of the salt mines. The town suffered from massive fire in 1750 that destroyed most of the wooden buildings. The center of the town is all in Baroque style, while buildings away from the center like this and the other building are wooden with board-and-batten siding.

Batten Door
This is a door I saw while walking around Hallstatt. It is considered a batten door, most likely on the other side of the door are some kind of planks holding the battens in place to be a door.

Let me know in the comments if you have any questions or have any board-and-batten sided buildings in your neighborhood!

Thanks for reading!

Further Reading and Resources:

1) An article about Board and Batten- a brief history, how it is currently used in architecture, etc. :   http://circaoldhouses.com/circa-school-board-batten/

2) A nice little history lesson on the siding: 

http://www.all-about-siding.com/board-and-batten-history.html

3) Another great article on what board-and-batten siding is:

https://www.thoughtco.com/what-is-board-and-batten-177663

4) Like always, my handy dandy resource for architectural jargon is: 

“The Historical Architecture of Vermont: Guide to Vermont Architecture,” Curtis B. Johnson, editor and Elsa Gilbertson, Principal Author, published by: the Vermont Division for Historic Preservation, 1996.

Food Adventures in Rochester

So this blog is about my history and preservation adventures but have I told you about how much I love eating when I adventure around!?!

I enjoy finding unique eateries and stuffing my face fully of messy food. I also have a soft spot for anything made locally…so when I traveled to Rochester a couple of weekends ago, there were some really awesome places my friend, Amanda, took me to.

The first cool place we went to was a burger joint called, “The Playhouse and Swillburger,” which along with serving up classic American food, has a bar, and a number of old school arcade games. When we arrived at the restaurant, I was starving. I’m not good at planning for food stops when I’m traveling. I typically wait until I get to my destination…starving and questioning when we’re going to eat.

Sooo, I’m not just telling you about the Swillburger because of how awesome the vibe was or how great the food tasted. The building happens to be old and have a cool backstory!

This brings me to another topic I’ve been wanting to write more about- building rehabilitation and reuse stories. So the idea that an old, historic, unused property gets a Cinderella-type makeover into something cool and the building remains in use!

Check out the images of the exterior and interior of The Playhouse and Swillburger to see what the building once was. The captions for the photos will give a brief history of the building and how it got into its current state.

So back to the burning question you have…was the food any good!?!

For the love of all foods good, cheap, and served quickly. Yes. Much good.

Foods
This is a picture of the food I ordered at Swillburger- Crispy Chicken Sammie, Fire and Smoke Fries, and a Vegan Chocolate Milkshake….and a beer from the bar

The crispy chicken sammie (sandwich) with Swillsauce, lettuce, tomatoes, and dad’s pickles? That was amazing and everything was so fresh tasting.

The “Smoke and Fire” french fries? Spicy and crunchy just the way I like my french fries.

The vegan chocolate milkshake? Creamy, thick, and chocolaty with a hint of coconut.

On a super nerdy yet slightly related note… For those familiar with the television show, Supernatural, there is a scene of a recurring character who is eating a hamburger, and he says something along the lines, “These make me very happy.” Here’s a link to the clip on Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s0bpejn__bQ

That’s exactly how I felt eating the food I ordered at Swillburger. The added facts that it was in a historic building and I was with my bff. Priceless.

Swillburger and Playhouse
The Playhouse and Swillburger is located at 820 South Clinton Avenue. It’s open daily from 11:30 am – 2 am (the grill closes down at 10 pm and the bar stays open until 2 am). There is no parking lot but there is parking along the surrounding streets.

There was one other food place Amanda and I went to while I was visiting and that was the Rochester Public Market. The market is open weekly on Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays; it’s a year round market place.

Rochester Public Market
This was the main parking lot for the market. It was packed but luckily Amanda found a place to park!

Amanda and I went to the Union Street Bakery for breakfast because Amanda said they have the best breakfast sandwiches around. The bakery is part of a row of buildings at the Public Market.

They did not disappoint!

Bakery Windows

 

Breakfast Sandwich
This sandwich consisted on two fried eggs, cheese, and turkey (other options included ham, bacon, sausage, and/or peppers) all on a large roll. The sandwich plus water I got cost me like $5.00. It was real good!

The Rochester Public Market has been in operation since 1827 when it was located at the west end of the Main Street Bridge. In 1905, the market was relocated to its current location on Union Street. Originally, the vendors who sold at the market could only sell products wholesale. That changed in 1913, when the city began to allow retailers to sell directly to the shoppers. When we visited the market it was chilly out and overcast but that didn’t seem to stop people from being out and shopping at the market!

Researching the Rochester Public Market I came across some interesting articles about plans for upgrades to the market. Apparently, the Public Market has received quite a bit of money to build a few buildings and to do general upgrades to the location. The weird thing was that this collection of news articles were from 2012-2013….in one of the articles, some peoples opinions on the future upgrades were reported on. The main concerns were that the upgrades would “yuppify” the market- more hipster coffee places and prices would rise pushing out certain groups of people from shopping at the market.

I’m not sure how much work has been done on the market. My friend, Amanda, made it sounds like the biggest upgrades still haven’t happened. I’m not sure. What I do know though is when I was there, there were lots of people from all walks of life. The vendors varied from handcrafts to produce to livestock. It was great to see so many people from different cultures- I don’t get to see that often in Northern New York. I like it.

The prices also were very inexpensive. Breakfast cost me $5 and that sandwich was glorious. Between Amanda and I, we probably spent barely $30.00 on produce. I think the most expensive thing purchased were frozen pierogies that we had for lunch. Not to be too weird but I still have apples in my crisper from the market and they’re still good!

Click through the images below to get a sense of what the Rochester Public Market is like!

Thoughts

Both of these places were really awesome for food adventures! If you find yourself in Rochester, check them both out!

Here in Northern New York, there are a number of good building reuse stories for me to share in the future. For example, there’s an Italian restaurant in an old train depot around the corner from me!

Is there a place in your hometown, with a cool and unique building reuse story that you frequent often? Or is there an eatery that’s really awesome and serves great food? Or does your town have a public market that is open year round?

Let me know in the comment section! I love hearing about good food.

Check out some of the links in the “Further Information” section- there news articles about the Rochester Farmer’s Market and the Playhouse and Swillburger there, along with a link to historic photographs of the market!

Thanks for reading!

Further Information:

The Playhouse and Swillburger –

http://www.theplayhouseroc.com/

This is the link to the Kickstarter page for the Playhouse:

https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/theplayhouse/the-playhouse-swillburger

News Articles about Swillburger opening and the history of the building:

http://www.rochestercitynewspaper.com/rochester/burgers-beers-and-arcade-battles-at-the-playhouse-swillburger/Content?oid=2727458

http://www.democratandchronicle.com/story/lifestyle/food-and-drink/2015/12/23/playhouseswillburger-opens-south-clinton/77800618/

http://www.democratandchronicle.com/story/news/2016/08/18/playhouse-south-wedge-filled-history/88954332/

http://www.onlyinyourstate.com/new-york/the-playhouse-swillburger-ny/

The Rochester Public Market –

Historic Photographs of the Rochester Public Market:

https://cityofrochester.smugmug.com/City-Departments-1/Rochester-Public-Market/Department-of-Recreation-and/

General Information about the market:

http://rochesterpublicmarket.weebly.com/history-and-future.html

The Rochester Public Market has an entire chapter dedicated to it, in the City’s code:

http://ecode360.com/8677890

Collection of brief articles related to construction and planned upgrades to Rochester Public Market. This is where the concerns were voiced about the possible “yuppify” of the market.

http://therochesterian.com/tag/rochester-public-market/