Oriel Windows?!? What is this Jargon!?!?!

This week, we return to one of my favorite things: architectural jargon!

While you may think of it as useless architectural history, I promise you that it will come in handy someday during a trivia Tuesday.

Trust me.

Someday, someone will be impressed with your knowledge of oriel windows.

So, what are they exactly? My handy-dandy Guide to Vermont Architecture uses the following definition:

“Multi-sided window that projects from the wall of a building, and whose base does not reach the ground.”

If the window starts on the first floor then you can call it a “bay” window; bay windows can be more than one story in height much like oriel windows.

Another definition comes from Thought Co.:

“An oriel window is a set of windows, arranged together in a bay, that protrudes from the face of a building on an upper floor and is braced underneath by a bracket or corbel.”

Here’s a definition of oriel windows from John Britton’s, A Dictionary of the Architecture and Archaeology of the Middle Ages: Including Words Used by Ancient and Modern Authors in Treating of Architectural and other Antiquities: With Etymology, Definition, Description, and Historical Elucidation: Also, Biographical Notices of Ancient Architects, which was printed in 1838:

Oriel Windows Definition
Oriel Windows Definition 2nd Page

So, where’d the idea of these windows come from you’re probably wondering!

Well, oriel windows most likely originated in the Middle Ages, not just in Europe but also in the Middles East.

In Europe, it may have developed from the word for porch or gallery, “oriolum,” which is medieval Latin. As you can see there’s a connection between the words, “oriel” and “oriolum.” Merriam Webster’s dictionary points to the first known usage of the word in the 14th century while the Encyclopedia Britannica says “oriel” became “prevalent” in the 15th century and were often placed over gateways or entrances to manor houses and public buildings.

So why would you want an oriel window- besides using it to spy on who’s coming to the manor for dinner tonight? It also allowed more light into a room and expanded the flood plan. The window style also offered a way for air ventilation and keeping a room cooler, which would have been ideal in the Middle East. In the Middle East, this style of window first appeared in 12th century Baghdad during the Abbasid Period. The window was called, mashrabiya, and were known for their ornamental lattice screens. In the Middle Eastern architecture, they were typically found on the side of the buildings and/or on the courtyard side of a house. Through the ages, the mashrabiya often would be designed based on the current architectural styles of the time, for example during the 1920’s and 1930’s, the mashrabiya lattice work was inspired by the Art Noveau and Art Deco styles.

Here in the United States, oriel windows can be found on a variety of buildings with different architectural styles, such as: Tudor Revival, Gothic Revival, and Queen Anne.

In another exciting book found on Google Books, here’s instructions on how you would have constructed an oriel window in the 1840’s as detailed by Alfred Bartholomew in Specifications for Practical Architecture, Preceded by an Essay on the Decline of Excellence in the Structure and in the Science of Modern English Buildings; With the Proposal of Remedies for those Defects:

Constructing Oriel Windows
Constructing Oriel Windows 2nd Page

*I am not making up these titles of these books that I found on Google Books*

Oriel Window
This is the Arlington. It was originally a hotel in downtown Potsdam, NY. It’s now a mixed-use building with businesses on the first floor and apartments on the second and third floors. In addition to that awesome information, it has a wonderful oriel window that extends two floors.
Up Close and Personal
Close-up view of the Arlington’s oriel window.
Chinatown Architecture
Oriel windows seen in San Francisco’s Chinatown.
Oriel Windows of San Francisco
These triple-decker oriel windows can be found in San Francisco. Where exactly you’re probably wondering…I have no idea, I think they’re somewhere near the Palace of Fine Arts.
Oriel Windows of San Francisco
A collection of oriel windows with major Art Deco vibes. These are somewhere in San Francisco……no idea where though. Sadly, when I’m walking around cities taking photos of fun buildings I’m not always documenting the exact location.
Oriel Windows of San Francisco
This oriel window is also in San Francisco. The place is just filled of oriel windows. Good news is I know where this is located: 100 Carl St, San Francisco, CA 94117 (about a block away from the south-east corner of the Golden Gate Park).
Bay Window in Ogdensburg, NY
Plot twist, this isn’t an oriel window but a bay window! This house is located in Ogdensburg, NY (located next to the Post Office). Please, someone buy it and make it look beautiful again.

Resources and Further Information

Alfred Bartholomew, Specifications for Practical Architecture, Preceded by an Essay on the Decline of Excellence in the Structure and in the Science of Modern English Buildings; With the Proposal of Remedies for those Defects, (London: Gilbert and Rivington, Printers, St. John’s Square, 1840) 4691. https://books.google.com/books?id=82UkAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA80&dq=oriel+window&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiZ1p-zocPgAhVrrlQKHThgBWU4ChDoAQhcMAk#v=onepage&q=oriel%20window&f=false

John Britton, A Dictionary of the Architecture and Archaeology of the Middle Ages: Including Words Used by Ancient and Modern Authors in Treating of Architectural and other Antiquities: With Etymology, Definition, Description, and Historical Elucidation: Also, Biographical Notices of Ancient Architects (London: Printed by James Moyes, Castle Street, 1838) 337- 338. https://books.google.com/books?id=j2AJAAAAIAAJ&pg=PT18&dq=oriel+window&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiUv_KcocPgAhVDMnwKHbacDUoQ6AEIWjAJ#v=onepage&q=oriel%20window&f=false

(Let’s talk about Google Books. They’re amazing. You can read previews of many newer books but can also find the full text for many older books and periodicals, which can be fantastic when researching quirky architectural history topics.)

Jackie Craven, “The Oriel Window- An Architectural Solution, Look for the Bracket on the Bottom,” Thought Co, July 5, 2017: https://www.thoughtco.com/what-is-an-oriel-window-177517

Curtis B. Johnson, editor and Elsa Gilbertson, Principal Author, The Historical Architecture of Vermont: Guide to Vermont Architecture (The Vermont Division for Historic Preservation, 1996) 27.

Stephanie Przybylek, “Oriel Windows: Definition & Style”, Study.com, https://study.com/academy/lesson/oriel-windows-definition-style.html

Random Definitions-

Encyclopedia Brittanica, Definition for Oriel Window: https://www.britannica.com/technology/oriel

Meeriam-Webster Dictionary Definition for Oriel Window: https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/oriel%20window

Buffalo Architecture and History, Illustrated Architecture Dictionary: Oriel Window: https://buffaloah.com/a/DCTNRY/o/oriel.html

Wikipedia’s Pages on the Oriel Window and the Mashrabiya:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mashrabiya

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oriel_window

Balustrades? Balusters? What Is This Jargon!?!?

It’s been a while since we’ve talked about some architectural jargon, so that’s what we’re doing this morning!

So, balusters…. balustrades…. you’ve seen them, you’ve heard of them but really, what are they? Could you actually define them? Everything you’re about to read, will be on the test later. So pay attention!

A balustrade as defined by my handy-dandy “Guide to Vermont Architecture” says this:

“A row of vertical balusters or other elements topped by a handrail and used to edge stairways, porches, balconies, and roof lines.”[i]

While Architectural Digest writes this:

“A row of small columns topped by a rail.”[ii]

So, what exactly is a “baluster”?

It just so happens that a “baluster,” is one of number of terms that can be used to name a turned or rectangular upright support seen in the balustrade. Other names you may see include: “banister,” “column,’ “spindle,” or even “stair stick.”[iii] Personally, “stair stick” is my new favorite and will be the technical term I use going forth in any official building description I write ever again. That’s a joke, I’m like 90% sure no State Historic Preservation Office would be pleases to see balusters called “stair sticks.” The term, “baluster,” can also be used to described a type of metal candle stick, an upright furniture support, or event the stem of a brass chandelier.[iv]

Balusters and balustrades can be seen in a number of different forms and materials including wood, stone, metal, and plastic. In the history of baluster development, cast-stone balusters were first developed in Great Britain during the 18th century. While cast iron ones didn’t make an appearance until the 1840’s.[v]

The term, “baluster,” didn’t really come into use until the 17th century and originates from the Italian word, balaustro or balaustra, which in turn comes from the Latin word, balaustium. All of these words by the way means, “flower of the wild pomegranate.”[vi] We’ll come back to that interesting word in a moment.

Even though the word “baluster” and “balustrade” wasn’t in use until the 1600’s, the architectural element makes its first appearance in ancient Assyrian sculptural murals, also called “bas-reliefs,” which date all back to the 13th-7th century BC. In the murals, balusters and balustrades can be seen in palaces lining windows. This helps hone in on the function of a balustrade other than potentially being a decorative architectural feature, it helps reduce the possibility of a person falling. While balustrades make an appearance in ancient Assyrian art, we’re not sure exactly if there was a specific word used for the building element. Another interesting thing is that balusters and balustrades do not appear in ancient Greek or Roman ruins or art. The Romans did use a type of lattice structure though, crisscrossed panels called, transennae or clathii that could be constructed of wood, bronze, or even marble.[vii]

Balusters and balustrades as we know them did not reappear in the “modern” era until the Renaissance in Italy- not surprising because of the Italian origin of the word. The first known or maybe surviving first use of the balustrade in architecture is on the Pitti Palace in Florence constructed c. 1448. Another important, early example of the balustrade can be seen on the Drum of the Tempietti, which was designed by Donato Bramanti c. 1502. The Drum is at the Monastery of San Pietro in Montorio, which brings us back to the Italian and Latin root of “baluster.” Both origin words of “baluster” means the “blossoming flower of the pomegranate.” Most likely when you think of a single baluster, you think of a vase shaped mini column, which is actually what the blossoming pomegranate flower looks like! Some more trivia about balusters to impress your friends with include that the narrow section of the vase shape is known as the “sleeve,” while the wide section is called the “belly.” The balusters at the Drum of the Tempietti consist of two vase shapes connected at the “belly” end, which kind of looks like a candlestick and was probably inspired by Roman candlesticks. This type of baluster design is sometimes called the “double” baluster.[viii]

Last little tidbit on balusters and balustrades is that they can be found on staircases or porches, as well as along roof tops or roof lines, in a variety of different architectural styles including: Neoclassical, Colonial Revival, Federal, Georgian Revival, Beaux Arts, and Italian Renaissance Revival.

See below for a bunch of examples of balusters and balustrades I’ve photographed throughout the years!

Belvedere Castle
View of the vase-shaped balusters in their balustrade from the Upper Palace of the Belvedere Museum in Vienna, Austria. The baroque castle was constructed from 1717-1723.

The Great Hall of the Library of Congress
This is an interior view of the Library of Congress in Washington D.C. Specifically we’re looking at the ornately designed Great Hall, which along the upper level has a marble balustrade.

Main Reading Room of the Library of Congress
A view of the Main Reading Room in the Library of Congress, which also has a lovely balustrade, which consists of the “double” baluster. The Library of Congress is a Beaux Arts style building constructed from 1890-1897 and the main architect was Paul J. Pelz.

US Capitol Building
This is the balustrade that can be seen along the roof line of the US Capitol Building. The building was designed by William Thornton in the Neoclassical style and was constructed from 1793-1800.

Crocker Museum
Interior view of the Crocker Museum, which is located in Sacramento, CA. Looking up in the ballroom and you can see the wooden balustrade up above. The Crocker House was redesigned in the Italianate Style by local architect, Seth Babson and was officially completed in 1872.

Frederic Remington Museum
A view of the balusters and balustrade on the front porch of the Frederic Remington Museum located in Ogdensburg, NY. The house was originally constructed in 1810 for David Parish, an early resident.

Hearst Castle
A view of the front facade of Hearst Castle, which is located near San Simeon, CA. The castle was designed by Julia Morgan in the Mediterranean Revival style for William Randolph Hearst. The structure was worked and from 1919 to 1947. The balusters and balustrade visible on the upper level are in association with window and balcony openings and are most likely constructed of metal.

Vesuvio Cafe
Vesuvio Cafe in San Francisco features a balustrade with “double” balusters along the mini balcony created by the set of french windows on the second floor. The building was designed in 1916 by Italian architect, Italo Zanolini.

Add a comment if you have any questions or thoughts about balusters and balustrades!

Thanks for reading!

 

End Notes:

[i] Curtis B. Johnson, editor and Elsa Gilbertson, Principal Author, The Historical Architecture of Vermont: Guide to Vermont Architecture (The Vermont Division for Historic Preservation, 1996) 24.

[ii] “What Is a Balustrade?” Architectural Digest, July 31, 2015, https://www.architecturaldigest.com/story/ad-glossary-define-balustrade.

[iii] Buffalo Architecture and History, Illustrated Architecture Dictionary: Baluster. http://www.buffaloah.com/a/DCTNRY/b/baluster.html and Wikipedia’s page of Balusters: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baluster

[iv] Wikipedia’s page of Balusters: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baluster.

[v] Buffalo Architecture and History, Illustrated Architecture Dictionary: Baluster. http://www.buffaloah.com/a/DCTNRY/b/baluster.html

[vi] Calder Loth, “Balusters,” Institute of Classical Architecture and Art, June 1, 2011, https://www.classicist.org/articles/classical-comments-balusters/.

[vii] Ibid.

[viii] Ibid.

Rose Windows!?! What is this Jargon?!?!?

Since I’ve been in Sacramento, finding time to write blog posts has been difficult, the same goes for meeting new people other than those I work with. So a way I’m kind of working on both small issues, is by joining a Meet Up group that aimed at writing! There’s a lot of Meet Ups in Sacramento for so many different interests- in comparison there are no Meet Up groups in Northern New York and I’d never actually hear of Meet Up until being in California. So for the twoish months I’ve been going to a Sunday meet up for, “Shut Up and Write! Sacramento,” where I’ve been writing and pulling a bunch of posts together. It just then takes me a while to type everything up and edit my photographs before actually posting on my blog.

It’s been nice meeting new people who are passionate about writing and it’s nice to see them weekly and see how their progress on their own projects is coming along. The Meet Up I go to is at Shine, a really cute coffee shop at the corner of E and 14th Street. I usually get the Namaste Latte (a matcha latte with vanilla and honey), it’s super good!.

So this week’s post comes to you via my hour of writing at “Shut Up and Write!” It’s been a while since I’ve done a “What is this Jargon” post and today’s topic is……..Rose Windows.

It’s not really jargon sounding, is it? You probably had your hopes up that it was going to be something crazy like oriel….maybe next time it’ll be something outrageous. Any who. Rose Windows are exciting and they’re pretty and they kind of link back to by previous post about Grace Cathedral, which has two rose windows!

So “Rose Window” is a generic architectural term- see told you! Not jargon! A rose window is a term that can be used to refer to any circular window but typically is thought of as a window found in churches constructed in the Gothic architectural style- much like Grace Cathedral, which is a French Gothic style cathedral in San Francisco. The windows are often stained glass and are usually divided into segments by mullions and tracery.

There we go, some real jargon for ya! It’s like historic preservation inception, jargon within jargon…

Let’s get back on topic. So, where were we. Rose windows can also be referred to as a “wheel window” or even a “Catherine window,” a direct nod to St. Catherine of Alexandria, who was sentenced to be executed via a spiked wheel…fun side note, St. Catherine is a martyr who was most likely made up and possibly was based on death of the Greek female philosopher, Hypatia. Look it up, really interesting stuffs. While rose windows made a splash on the architectural scene by the middle of the 12th century in France, it’s reasonable to assume that the idea of this style of window came from the Roman oculus- a large circular windows-like opening that would allow light and air into a structure. Roman oculus can typically be found on the west facade of a Roman structure. From the Roman oculus, some examples of rose windows can be found in buildings that date to the Romanesque period (10th century).

By the Gothic period in France, rose windows can be found left and right in churches and cathedrals- typically at the west end of the nave (that’s the big central aisle) and at the ends of transepts (wings on the sides of the nave). A common scene depicted in rose windows includes the “Last Judgment,” especially in the west end, while the transepts would often depict “Mary.” Bar tracery in rose windows was officially introduced int the 13th century; that’s the stonework that supports the stained glass.

So obviously, I’ve got some awesome photographs to share of stained glass windows:

Memorial Hall, Harvard University:

Memorial Hall, HarvardMemorial Hall, Harvard

These photographs are of Memorial Hall on Harvard University’s campus in Boston. It’s a High Victorian Gothic building (Neo-Gothic is another term) that was designed by William Robert Ware and Henry Van Brunt. The Memorial Hall was constructed to honor Harvard men that had fought for the Union during the Civil War. The stained glass window measures 708 square feet and is called McDonald’s Virtues Window. Further information on Memorial Hall:

http://sites.fas.harvard.edu/~memhall/history.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memorial_Hall_(Harvard_University)

St. John’s in the Wilderness:

St. John's in the WildernessSt. John's in the Wilderness

This little church is located in Paul Smiths, NY in the Adirondacks. The Episcopal Church was constructed in 1930 and designed by William G. Distin. You can only see a small portion of the rose window in the photographs but if you follow the link you can see interior images of the church: http://townofbrighton.net/sjinthew.htm

Trinity Church:

Trinity ChurchInterior of Trinity Church

Trinity Church in Potsdam, NY is constructed of fantastic Red Potsdam Sandstone. The church was originally constructed in 1835 as a Federal style building with Gothic elements. In 1886, it was enlarged and renovated into the High Victorian Gothic style church it is today; designs were by James P. Johnson. The stained glass window was a gift of Thomas S. Clarkson and was installed in 1886; the window has many Christian symbols with a dove in the center. The church, as is many of the Potsdam Sandstone buildings in St. Lawrence County, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Further information: https://www.northcountrypublicradio.org/news/trinitywindows/trinitywindows.php

Zion Episcopal Church:

Zion Episcopal ChurchInterior Zion Episcopal Church

This rose window can be seen in the Zion Episcopal Church in Colton, NY. It’s also constructed of Potsdam Sandstone and it’s construction was financed by the Clarkson family in 1883. James P. Johnston also designed this church and it was inspired by the Trinity Church in Potsdam. The rose window is located in the south facade and is 10 feet in diameter. The sections of the window represent the 12 apostles surrounding a dove. The Zion Episcopal Church is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Further information:   https://coltonepiscopal.wordpress.com/history-of-zion/

Swill Burger:

Swill BurgerSwill Burger Rose Window

This is the former 2nd German Baptist Church in Rochester, NY; the church was constructed in 1890. Today the building is no longer a church but the home of Swill Burger. While one of the rose windows is gone, the other one still exists and helps point to the former history of the building. More information can be found about Swill Burger and the church in a previous post:

https://adventurewithcourtney.wordpress.com/2017/05/07/food-adventures-in-rochester/

Herring-Cole Hall:

Cole Reading RoomCole Reading Room, Rose Window

Herring-Cole Hall is located on campus of St. Lawrence University in Canton, NY. The current building was constructed in two different installments both of which are of Potsdam Sandstone. The Herring Library was constructed between 1869-1871 and was designed by the firm, Huberty & Hudson. The Cole Reading Room was added between 1901-1902 and was designed by Joseph Smith. The rose window located at the east of the hall was made by the New York firm, J. & R. Lamb and the window is of the college’s seal. The building is listed on the National Register of Historic places. Further information: http://hcap.artstor.org/cgi-bin/library?a=d&d=p1644

Resources and Further Information on Rose Windows:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rose_window

https://www.britannica.com/technology/rose-window

http://dragon_azure.tripod.com/UoA/Med-Arch-Rose-Window.html

https://study.com/academy/lesson/rose-windows-definition-design-symbolism.html

https://www.dartmouth.edu/~matc/math5.geometry/unit9/unit9.html

http://www.buffaloah.com/a/DCTNRY/r/rose.html

Catherine Wheel” and Saint Catherine; My information came from Wikipedia but there are some sources under Note number 7 about Catherine and Hypatia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catherine_of_Alexandria

 

What is This Jargon!?! Art Deco and Streamline Moderne???

Last week I was in downtown Sacramento for a chocolate tasting with co-workers and I had an opportunity to walk around 9th and 10th Streets in between J and K Streets- basically a square around the block.

I took a number of photos and wanted to share those images with you….and tell you about some jargon!

Art Deco.

Streamline Moderne.

They’re jargon and they’re architectural terms. Art Deco is a style that appeared in Paris in the early 1900’s in the construction of two different apartment buildings. The architects were Henri Sauvage and Auguste Perret. The apartment buildings were constructed of reinforced concrete- used for the first time for residential buildings in Paris. The architectural design of the buildings consisted of clean lines, rectangular forms, and there were no decorations on the facade. The term applies to not only architecture but to visual arts and design. The name, “Art Deco” comes from Art Décoratifs a phrase used during the International Exhibition of Modern Decorative and Industrial Arts that was held in Paris in 1925. In general Art Deco is associated with luxury and modernity; expensive materials were used with superb craftsmanship. Streamline Moderne is an architectural term used for a later styleof Art Deco seen during the 1930’s. Below are lists of the features seen in both types of styles.

Specific Features:

Art Deco:

Smooth Wall Surfaces

Stucco, Stone, Metal, Polychromy

Simple, Geometric Forms and Motifs

Vertical Emphasis

Rectangular Forms

Streamline Moderne:

Curved Forms

Stucco, Fluted/Pressed Metal, Ribbon Windows, Glass Block Windows

Long Horizontal Lines

Nautical Elements

Horizontal Emphasis

Curved Walls

Flat Roof lines

The following are images that I look around the Blocks of 9th and 10th Street, in between J and K Streets. They are in the order of which I took the photographs, where I started on 10th Street, walked up Kayak Alley, arrived on 9th Street and then eventually walked down J Street back to 10th Street. There were only a few buildings I could find information on; one building is listed on the National Register of Historic Places; other information came from historic photographs of the streets and from the Pacific Coast Architectural Database created by the University of Washington. 

1118 10th Street

Looking Up
This is the Forum Building. It was constructed in 1911. It definitely has Art Deco detailing around the main entrance and the general vertical feeling of the building. In 2000, rehabilitation work was done on the facade to preserve its wonderful details!

Forum Building
The front doors of the Forum Building.

Store Fronts on 9th StreetBuilding DetailBlack Birds

Ruhstaller Building
The blue building is the Ruhstaller Building, which is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. It was constructed in 1898 for the business man, Frank J. Ruhstaller. The building is eclectic in that in combines a number of architectural style features including Queen Anne, Romanesque, and even Art Deco motifs.

Corner of 9th Street and J Street
Another view of the Ruhstaller Building. The building was used by Frank J. Ruhstaller for his business offices, for the Buffalo Brewing Company/ SPace was rented to doctors and other business. For a time the Elks Club has space in the building. The tall building seen behind the Ruhstaller Building is the California-Western States Life Insurance Company headquarters.

Building Detail on J Street
A view of the California-Western States Life Insurance Company headquarters and its immediate neighbor.

California-Western States Life Insurance Building
Looking up at the California-Western States Life Insurance Company headquarters. The building was designed by George C. Sellon and built in 1926. The building is 14 stories tall.

Side Walk DetailBuildings on 10th StreetCorner of 10th Street and K StreetBuilding Detail on 10th Street

Sources and Further Information-

Sacramento Buildings: http://pcad.lib.washington.edu/building/19942/

http://sacramento.pastperfectonline.com/search?utf8=%E2%9C%93&search_criteria=10th+street&searchButton=Search

Rahstaller Building: https://npgallery.nps.gov/pdfhost/docs/NRHP/Text/82002237.pdf

Architectural Styles: All of these links have wonderful photos of significant buildings that are designed in these architectural styles, check them out!

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Art_Deco

http://www.architecturaldigest.com/gallery/worlds-most-beautiful-art-deco-buildings

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Streamline_Moderne

https://architecturestyles.org/art-deco/

 

Board and Batten!?! What is this Jargon?!?

This month’s jargon term is, “board and batten” or “board-and-batten,” depending on whether you’re using the term as an adjective or noun; for the record, hyphenate when using the term as an adjective. Every now and then, this type of exterior siding many be called, “barn siding,” because many barns across North America are constructed with this.

The actual definition of “board and batten” from my handy-dandy Guide to Vermont Architecture is this, “Exterior siding of flush wide, vertical planks with narrow wooden strips (battens) covering the joints.”

Historically, board and batten would refer to siding built of wood but given today’s building material options, this siding can be made of plastic, metal, or even fiberglass. Board-and-batten siding can be seen on informal styled architecture, think country homes, churches, and/or barns. During the Victorian era it would have been seen as an architectural feature on Carpenter Gothic homes.

So, board-and-batten siding has an interesting back story. Basically, people built in this style because of a lack of materials plus it helps create a stronger and more energy efficient wall. You’re probably wondering what the hell I’m talking about…

Imagine yourself, a recent arrival to the New World. There’s extensive, old growth forests that you’re not familiar with; England really doesn’t have forests like this anymore. You are also in desperate need of a shelter for yourself and family. Cutting down trees and building a log house would be the easiest and quick; you only have axes and saws and there are no saw mills yet built. The log house is easy to build, for the most part, the issue is that the felled tress do no exactly fit together, so there are gaps that you and your family fill in with moss, leaves, sticks, and mud. It mostly does the job…but there’s still a cold draft during the winter. By the way, you’re not the only family that needs to build a quick home plus there’s also an extreme logging occurring in the New World with lumber being shipped back to Europe. The forests are slowly depleted but houses still need to be built because of the increasing numbers of colonists. Eventually a town is built up around where you and your family settled and a saw mill in constructed. Because of the lack of trees and a new sawmill, newer settlers are building there houses out of planks and strips of wood. Out of one felled log, a lot of planks can be planed, meaning it is most cost effective. The seams between vertical standing planks can easily be covered with narrow wood strips (batten), keeping the cold out during the winter.

For an actual visual of a log home located in Northern New York, check out this link: http://www.watertowndailytimes.com/article/20110108/DCO01/301089932. The article is about an actual log cabin that was reconstructed to represent the home of the first settler in Parishville, Luke Brown and his family. In the photos accompanying the article, you can see the space in between the stacked logs.

Check out the following images to see buildings constructed with board-and-batten siding. There are no spaces in between planks!

Centennial
This patriotic home is one of the many summer cottages located in Thousand Island Park on Wellesley Island in the 1000 Islands Region. The battens are painted red while the boards are white. The home was constructed in 1876. The cottage is an example of Eastlake wood detailing, stick style elements, and I would call it Carpenter Gothic.

The Ol' Station
This is a convenient store located in Blue Mountain Lake in the Adirondacks. This photo was taken way back in 2015 on the way home from a Dave Matthews concert in Saratoga Springs. As of this post, the store might be permanently closed…but hopefully the building is still there and maybe a new tenant is in the building.

Buildings from Upper Canada Village:

Blacksmith and Wheelwright
This is a building seen at Upper Canada Village. The living history museum consists of a number of buildings that have been moved from around Canada to form this village showing what life would have been like in the 1800’s. This building combines board and batten on the upper story with squared log siding on the first floor. There are a number of buildings with this combination of siding at Upper Canada Village.

Union Cheese Shop
This is another building at Upper Canada Village. The cheese shop shows 19th century techniques and uses period equipment to produce cheese that can be purchased at the Village’s store.

Masonic Lodge
This is the Masonic Lodge at Upper Canada Village. It is a 1863 building that was moved to the Village in 2008 from the Village of Kars in south-west Ottawa. The building is constructed on board and batten.

Hallstatt, Austria:

A Building in Hallstatt
This is a building located in Hallstatt, Austria. Hallstatt is located in Upper Austria and is on the western shore of Hallstatter See (lake). The village and surrounding area is a World Heritage Site because of it’s wonderful history and culture. I’m not very sure about the history of the building or it’s current use. I assume it might be an inn along with being someone’s permanent residence.

Another Hallstatt Building
This building is also located in Hallstatt, Austria. It looks like it could be a barn but I have a feeling it might be another house. Hallstatt is part of Salzkammergut, in the eastern Alps. The village has a very rich history spanning all the way back to the Iron Age because of the salt mines. The town suffered from massive fire in 1750 that destroyed most of the wooden buildings. The center of the town is all in Baroque style, while buildings away from the center like this and the other building are wooden with board-and-batten siding.

Batten Door
This is a door I saw while walking around Hallstatt. It is considered a batten door, most likely on the other side of the door are some kind of planks holding the battens in place to be a door.

Let me know in the comments if you have any questions or have any board-and-batten sided buildings in your neighborhood!

Thanks for reading!

Further Reading and Resources:

1) An article about Board and Batten- a brief history, how it is currently used in architecture, etc. :   http://circaoldhouses.com/circa-school-board-batten/

2) A nice little history lesson on the siding: 

http://www.all-about-siding.com/board-and-batten-history.html

3) Another great article on what board-and-batten siding is:

https://www.thoughtco.com/what-is-board-and-batten-177663

4) Like always, my handy dandy resource for architectural jargon is: 

“The Historical Architecture of Vermont: Guide to Vermont Architecture,” Curtis B. Johnson, editor and Elsa Gilbertson, Principal Author, published by: the Vermont Division for Historic Preservation, 1996.

Basilica!?! What is This Jargon?!?

Part deux of my adventures in Emmitsburg, Maryland.

The really cool part of being at the National Emergency Training Center is that it is right next door to the National Shrine of Saint Elizabeth Ann Seton. A tour was offered of the Basilica after hours if you were at the training center, so I took the opportunity to see the Shrine.

National Shrine of Saint Elizabeth Ann Seton
This is a view of the basilica for St. Elizabeth Ann Seton. This building was constructed in 1965 and it is a very Italianate style basilica.

The grounds of the Shrine consists of a walking path, a number of buildings, and a cemetery. If you find yourself in the area, the grounds are open to walk around until dusk, while the Basilica and museum are open almost daily from 10- 4:30 pm.

Saint Elizabeth Ann Seton (1774-1821) is the first native born United States citizen to be canonized, which means to be named a saint. She was canonized in 1975 by Pope Paul VI. In 1991 the chapel, which was originally designed as the chapel for the sisters in the Daughters of Charity, was designated as a minor basilica by Pope John Paul II; it was already the national shrine prior to this.

So, I’m sure you have some questions:

1. What exactly did Mother Elizabeth Ann Seton do during her life to be canonized?

2. What is a basilica, it sounds like architectural jargon!?! It is….

Anyways, I’ll answer the easier of the two.

Who exactly was Mother Seton?

The shortened biography goes something like this…Elizabeth Ann Bayley was born in 1774 into an Anglican family in New York City. In 1794, she married William Magee Seton and they had five children. William was not in the greatest health and because of this he, Elizabeth, and their eldest child, Anna Marie, sailed to Italy for warmer weather believing this would help William’s health. William also had business partners in Italy, Filippo and Antonio Filicchi, who they planned to stay with.

Sadly, the warmer weather did not help. William passed away before the end of 1803. While in Italy though, Elizabeth was introduced to the Catholic faith through the Filicchi family. Upon returning to the United States, she converted to the Roman Catholic Faith in 1805. By 1808, she was traveling with her family and companions, to Emmitsburg to start a school for girls. She was successful in starting a school, St. Joseph’s Academy, which eventually morphed into Saint Joseph’s College. She also created the congregation of religious sisters called, the Sisters of Charity.

This leads us to the other question.

What exactly is a basilica?

So historically a basilica was a type of large public building found in Rome. It was used for business or legal matters- not religious matters. It typically would have been a semi-circular space roofed with a half dome. Finally, when Christianity was no longer illegal in the Roman Empire in the 4th century, Christians began to publicly construct basilicas. 

The most basic interior layout of the basilica would have consisted of:

Nave – This is the central aisle that religious processions walk down

Aisles– One on each side of the central nave

Apse– This is the location where the altar is, typically it is opposite of the main entrance

From this basic interior plan, a basilica can greatly vary. For example there could be transepts, which would go off of the outer aisles expanding the layout into a “cross” plan. There can also be differences in the ceiling vaults. Examples: the central nave has a ceiling that extends upwards another story allowing for windows while the ceilings above the aisles are not as tall OR the height of all three ceilings and their vaults are all similar in size meaning there might not be windows.

To confuse matters a little more, “basilica” can also refer to an ecclesiastical status for a church.

There are two rankings for basilicas with this type of status: major and minor.

There are only four major or papal basilicas, these are all located in Rome and have something called a “holy door” it’s a very specific type of door.

Then there are minor basilicas, these are churches, chapels, etc. that have been decreed by the acting Pope to be designated as a minor basilica (typically a Papal brief is issued). This allows that building the right to conopaeum, a specific type of canopy to be displayed. It’s red and gold and looks like an umbrella. There is also the right to display a bell called, tintinnabulum, and the cappa magna, which is a robe. All of these link the basilica to the Pope.

The basilica at Emmitsburg was completed in 1965 and the interior was made entirely by German and Italian craftsmen and artisans. I tried researching more on the architecture of the basilica but I could find nothing! The church is definitely Italianate in style. It’s beautiful.

The following are images from within the basilica for Saint Elizabeth Ann Seton. You should be able to “right click” on any of the images to open into a new page, this will allow you to slightly zoom into the images to see more details.

St. Elizabeth Ann Seton

Altar of Relics
This is where Saint Elizabeth Ann Seton’s remains are located within the Basilica. The statue was sculpted in Italy and beneath the altar is a small copper casket that contains the saint’s remains. This has been enclosed in marble.

Looking Down the Nave
One final look down the Basilica.

I have written about one other basilica and that is located in Ottawa, Canada. It’s the Notre Dame Cathedral Basilica in Ottawa was declared in minor basilica in 1879: https://adventurewithcourtney.wordpress.com/2017/03/17/st-patricks-day-historic-ads-and-buildings/

Stay tune for the next post on Gettysburg, which has a link to the Sisters of Charity!

Thanks for reading!

For More Information:

All of my information came from a handout I received at the Basilica and from the Shrine’s website. I attached the National Register nomination again because it does discuss the Stone House, the White House, and the cemetery. I can’t seem to conclude whether or not the Basilica is actually included in the district. I assume it is, but there’s no real information about the building and it’s construction, which is weird.

The National Shrine for Saint Elizabeth Ann Seton: https://setonshrine.org/

National Register Nomination: https://mht.maryland.gov/secure/medusa/PDF/NR_PDFs/NR-355.pdf

Basilicas: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basilica

Cupolas!?! What is this Jargon!?!?!

I realized the other day it’s been months since we’ve talked about architectural jargon! So guess what we’re looking at today. Some jargon found frequently in preservation talk.

Today is being brought to us by the word….druuuummmm roooolllllll pleeeessseeee…..

Cupola!

Though, you might have already guessed that though based on this post’s title. 

So anyways, you’re probably wondering what in good Italianate graces is a cupola?

Well here are some official definitions:

A History of American Architecture, Mark Gerlenter, 2001 edition, Pg. 322.

“A small tower-like element, often with a round or polygonal base and a domed roof, which accents the roof of a building.”

“The Historical Architecture of Vermont: Guide to Vermont Architecture,” Curtis B. Johnson, editor and Elsa Gilbertson, Principal Author, published by: the Vermont Division for Historic Preservation, 1996, Pg. 25.

“Small decorative structure crowning the roof ridge, and usually used for ventilation.”

This is my definition, combining the above info with some other stuff I found online:

A cupola is a small tower-like structure that can be found on the roof of a building. The word “cupola” is derived from the Italian word cupula, which means small cup. The architectural feature can be round, square, or polygonal in shape. It typically has windows and can help with ventilation, especially in barns. Cupolas may also serve as a belfry (bell tower), a belvedere (a point to look out), or a roof lantern (provides natural light). Sometimes cupolas may be atop of a spire, tower, or another dome.

They are seen as a decorative element in the following architectural styles: Italianate, Octagon, Second Empire, and Greek Revival.

Let’s check out some images I have of cupolas!

Barn in Dummerston, Vermont
This is one of 23 buildings located at the Scott Farm Orchard in Dummerston, Vermont. The lovely ladies in the photo are former classmates when I was at UVM. The Orchard is owned and operated by the Landmark Trust USA, which is an offshoot of the Landmark Trust UK. Scott Farm Orchard was used in the filming of the film, The Cider House Rules. The Landmark Trust has a preservation philosophy of restoring their properties with traditional skills and methods, along with sustaining their buildings as “living history.” That means their properties can be rented for vacations or events; the orchards are open from Labor Day to Thanksgiving. The cupola on this barn can be seen in the center of the barn and is there for ventilation purposes. The property is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

Amherst Woman's Club
This fancy looking Victorian house with some Italianate features is located in Amherst, Massachusetts. The home was constructed in 1864 by Leonard Mariner Hills and given in 1922 to the Woman’s Club by Alice Maud Hills. The cupola on this home also has windows and most likely is there to serve as a belvedere, to look out at the surrounding land. The Woman’s Club is located down the street from the Emily Dickinson Museum.

The Emily Dickinson Museum
This is “The Homestead” of the Emily Dickinson Museum. It was built by her grandfather, Samuel Fowler Dickinson, in 1813. It most likely was the first brick building in Amherst, MA and originally the home would have been in the Federal style. The home was sold in the 1830’s to David Mack. Emily, her parents, and siblings still lived at the home though; they eventually moved out. David Mack added Greek Revival architectural features to the home, which would have been in vogue at the time. In 1855, the home was for sale and Edward Dickinson, Emily’s father, jumped at the opportunity to purchase the family home. It was the late 1850’s, that the Dickinson family added the Italianate cupola to the roof, along with a number of other features including a veranda. The museum is listed as a National Historic Landmark.

This next example, is the only one I had in my collection of photos for Northern New York:

The Octagon House
This is the Octagon House located in Brasher Falls, NY. When I was younger, I lived down the street from this house. The home is the only surviving octagon style house in St. Lawrence County. It was constructed between 1855-1857 for Dr. Nathan Buck, who was the first physician in the town; eventually the home was owned by the Stevens Family, who were also early settlers of Brasher Falls. The architectural style was popular for a short time in the 1840’s-1850’s and was promoted by Orson Squire Fowler, who wrote a book on how great octagon shaped houses were. It is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

Cupola on the Octagon House
This is just a close-up of the cupola of the Octagon House. It too, is shaped like an octagon.

Here are some more examples from Canada and Saratoga Springs:

Sydenham Public School
The Sydenham Public School is located in Kingston, Ontario. It was originally opened in 1853 as the Kingston County Grammar School. It had two classrooms and could accommodate 100 students on each floor! In 876, the building was damaged by a fire but it was rebuilt and expanded. In the 1890’s it became a primary school and eventually renamed after Lord Sydenham, who was the Governor General of British North America in 1839. The building has Gothic Revival elements and a cupola in the center of it’s roof, which would have probably helped with ventilation. The really awesome thing about this building is that it still is a functioning school. Making it the oldest known structure in Ontario still used as a school!

Kingston, Ontario's City Hall
This is a view of the backside of Kingston, Ontario’s City Hall. It was completed in 1844 and was designed by George Browne. The structure is considered a Neoclassical styled building. When this building was constructed, Kingston was actually the capital of the United Province of Canada, still under British rule. In the photo you can see the dome with a cupola on top of that and to the right there is another cupola. In the summer months the square/courtyard behind the City Hall is used for a farmer’s market and antique market, which can be seen happening here.

Carriage Barn in Saratoga Springs
This is the home and carriage barn located at 198 Nelson Avenue in Saratoga Springs. You can seen that the carriage barn has a cupola with windows, which would allow natural light from above into the barn. It looks like the building might have been remodeled into an apartment on the second floor with a parking garage below.

So those are some examples of cupolas. As you can see they can range in design and look great on a variety of buildings!

If you have any comments, thoughts, or ideas about cupolas or other architectural jargon, let me know in the comments below!

Thanks for reading!

For Further Information On Any of the Above Properties:

Wikipedia’s page on cupolas: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cupola
Scott Farm Orchard: http://scottfarmvermont.com/
http://landmarktrustusa.org/about-us/restoration-philosophy/
Sydesham Public School: http://www.heritagetrust.on.ca/CMSImages/87/87108867-1a3b-4160-878b-a204681c3804.pdf
Kingston, Ontario City Hall: https://www.cityofkingston.ca/explore/culture-history/history/city-hall
Emily Dickinson House and Museum: https://emilydickinsonmuseum.org/homestead
Brasher Falls Octagon House: http://cdm16694.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/slcha/id/235
The National Register Nomination for the home can be found at: https://cris.parks.ny.gov/ under St. Lawrence County and the town of Brasher Falls.
Amherst Woman’s Club: http://amherstwomansclub.org/

What is this Jargon in Austria!?!?! Hallstatt Edition

It’s taken me a few days to collect my thoughts and ideas on how to share the history and photographs I took on the second leg of the trip in Austria. After spending two full days in Vienna, I hopped on a train and headed to Hallstatt, which is located in the Salzkammergut region of the Eastern Alps!

The next post I’ll go into more detail about the train traveling from Vienna, arriving in Hallstatt, and some of the attractions in the picturesque village. This post I just wanted to use, as a way to broaden everyone’s architectural terminology knowledge and give a glimpse of what I saw in Hallstatt!

So today is brought to you by the letter “J,” as in “jerkinhead roof.”

So you’re probably thinking: “WTF is a jerkinhead roof”…. “This sounds made up!”…. “Who comes up with these things!?!?!?!”

It’s not a made up term.

It seems to have been around for a long time though the exact origins of the roof style are not clear. In 1902, the definition for the roof went like this, “A ridge roof of which the ridge is shorter than the eaves, having with a single slope from the wall of the clear story outwards.”i Let’s be honest, I have no idea what that actually means. It’s confusing. My trusty, Guide to Vermont Architecture, gives the following, clearer definition, “A gable roof in which the gable peaks are clipped off and inclined backward.”ii That makes a little more sense.

Here’s a photo that helps show what we’re talking about:

Jerkinhead Roof
This is a building that was located behind the inn I was staying at, Gasthof Bergfried. Behind the building in this image is the Salt Mine Museum.

This type of roof is also occasionally called, “half-hipped” and “clipped gable” or even “jerkin-head roof.”

As already mentioned, there seems to be no clear indication on where this type of roof originated from. The one source I found that gave some idea of the roof’s origins was Early American Architecture: From the First Colonial Settlements to the National Period written in 1952 by Hugh Morrison. Morrison makes the suggestion that the style, during the medieval period, may have helped protect the gable-ends of walls that were built of wattle and daub.iii The roof style can be seen in many European countries such as England, Germany, Denmark, Slovenia, and obviously Austria. The roof is typical in timber-framed buildings and historically would have been seen on thatch-roofed houses.

Hallstatt Roofs
There are a number of jerkinhead roofs in this image.

Old Town Market
So many colors and jerkinhead roofs! The Cafe Derbl, the yellow building on the right, has a very long history and apparently has been in existence since the 15th century when it was a bakery.

Row of Jerkinhead Roofs
Another close-up of some of the buildings around the Old Market Square of Hallstatt. The history seems a little unclear, but a fire in the 1700’s destroyed much of Hallstatt, resulting in most of the town being rebuilt during the Baroque era. There are some buildings that survived the fire, not sure if these are some of those earlier buildings from the 15th century or from a later date.

Cafe Derbl
Another view of the Old Market Square.

Rooftops of Hallstatt
This image was taken from the Catholic Church located above the Old Market Square. Some of the brightly colored buildings in this image are seen close-up in following image; they surround the Old Market Square. The Church in this picture is the Protestant Church,

Close-Up of Bright Colored Buildings
Theses are those brightly-colored buildings seen in one in the previous image.

Since I’m still focusing on my trip to Austria, I shared a lot of images of jerkinhead roofs from Hallstatt. In my adventures around Northern New York, I don’t recall seeing these types of roofs but I know I now will keep a lookout for them! Do you have any examples in your neighborhood, if you do, share your examples in the comment section below!

Hallstatt
Now with your new knowledge of Jerkinhead Roofs…can you spot that type of roof in this image. There are a couple of them!

Thanks for reading 🙂

Sources:

i  A Dictionary of Architecture and Building: Biographical, Historical, and Descriptive, Russell Sturgis, (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1902), 359-360. https://books.google.com/books?id=J58aAAAAYAAJ&num=5

ii  The Historical Architecture of Vermont: Guide to Vermont Architecture, Curtis B. Johnson, editor and Elsa Gilbertson, Prinicpal Author, (Vermont Division for Historic Preservation, 1996), 26.

iii  Early American Architecture: From the First Colonial Settlements to the National Period, Hugh Morrison (New York: Dover Publications, 1987), 143. https://books.google.com/books?id=Dk1qhPyIPfQC&pg=PA625&dq=early+american+architecture&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiEyf28g-XQAhXG6iYKHezRDFMQ6AEIJzAC#v=onepage&q&f=false

What is this Jargon in Austria!?!?! Baroque Architecture

It’s been awhile since I consistently posted about my preservation and history adventures, hopefully I can keep my posting on target for the next few months!

So you’re probably wondering what exactly I’m planning for the next few months. For starters I want to share all the awesome things I saw on my recent vacation to Austria. A few weeks ago, I spent almost two weeks adventuring with my boyfriend, Jake, in Austria. We traveled to Vienna, Hallstatt, Salzburg, and then ended the trip in Vienna.

dsc00706
Jake and I in front of a MYSTERY Baroque Building. Can you guess which building it is? Answer might be down below…..

Since coming back home, I’ve been planning posts about the things we saw while on vacation- it was a lot of stuff. I wasn’t really sure where to start and I’ve researched a lot of very different things in all three locations. I figured I would start with a, “What is this Jargon!?!?” post and showcase some of the really ornate Baroque architecture that we saw in Vienna.

Baroque architecture has been described with a lot of unique adjectives: extravagant, deformed, absurd, irregular. All of these adjectives come about because of type of characteristics seen in Baroque art and architecture, which includes:

Strong curves that give a sense of movement- this can be considered either “actual”     and “implied.” So that means a curving wall vs. a statue in the pose that represents motion.

 Attempts to represent or suggest infinity. This is easy to see in Baroque paintings where the sky just seems to keep going.

Dramatic use of light and how light effects how the art and architecture is seen.

Use of bright colors and ornaments (sometimes gilded), which give an overall feeling of the theatrical and grandiose.

Richly sculpted surfaces- both interior and exterior.

The Baroque style was popular in the 17th and 18th centuries. It started in Italy at the beginning of the 17th century (the early 1600’s). It spread throughout Europe and it arrived late in Austria. The main reasons included that during the 17th century, Austria was involved in the Thirty Year’s War (1618-1648); it is considered the deadliest European religious war fought between Protestant and Catholic believers. The other ongoing war that Austria was involved in was with the Ottoman Empire starting in 1529 when the Ottoman Empire tried to lay siege to Vienna; another siege was laid on Vienna in 1683. So during that time, a lot of resources were being used to fortify the city and country to protect from the wars that were Austria was involved in. Obviously, that means not a lot of elaborate construction was happening in Austria; a lot had also been either destroyed or looted by the Ottoman Army.

Some of the most famous Austrian Baroque buildings that were constructed under the rule of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI, who was the father to Empress Maria Theresa (who was mother to Marie Antoinette, the French Queen who was beheaded during the French Revolution), all were part of the Habsburg dynasty. Some of the local Austrian architects employed by the Habsburg family included Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach, his son, Joseph Emanuel, and Johanne Lukas von Hildebrandt. All three men designed buildings that Jake and I saw in Vienna. The last note about Baroque Architecture that I want to make, is that this style at times was considered propaganda for both the idea of the absolute monarch and the Church. The buildings were beyond elaborate to emphasis the importance and superiority of both the Church and ruling family.i

The following are photos of some of the Baroque buildings we saw in Vienna. If you click on any of the images, it will bring you to a “slide show” type screen. On each “slide” there is the ability to click a link to see a larger version of the image, where you can “zoom” in and see more of the details of the different buildings.

The following are the sources that I used in researching Baroque Architecture in Vienna and various links to the different buildings showcased. The links to the individual buildings, such as the National Library or the Belvedere, may need to be translated. Google Chrome, always seems to ask me if I want to translate, hopefully your browser allows the same type of thing. 

If you have any questions or comments, just share them in the comments below….

Sources:

Baroque Architecture in Vienna and Europe:

http://www.frommers.com/destinations/vienna/in-depth/architecture

http://www.visual-arts-cork.com/history-of-art/baroque-architecture.htm

http://www.tourmycountry.com/austria/austrianbaroque.htm

http://www.essential-humanities.net/western-art/architecture/baroque/

Specific Buildings and Sites:

http://www.karlskirche.at/

https://www.belvedere.at/palaces

http://www.onb.ac.at/ueber-uns/geschichte/

http://www.viennatouristguide.at/Altstadt/Brunnen/donnerbrunnen.htm

https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stiftskirche_(Wien)

i     So the information about Baroque architecture and the style’s history in Vienna came from a combination of websites, which are all listed in the “Sources: Baroque Architecture in Vienna and Europe.” All of the sources were accessed most recently on November 11, 2016. Sorry for the not exact Chicago Style Manual citation but hopefully the information is clear and easy for you to check out and further explore Baroque Art and Architecture!

**** Answer to the MYSTERY Baroque Building****

             It’s the National Library of Austria!!!!!

Shingle Style: What is This Jargon!?!

I’m currently working on a National Register nomination for a privately owned home in the Thousand Islands on Bluff Island. Bluff Island is located in the township of Clayton, New York. The property is a shingle-style summer cottage that was constructed in 1901 for a family from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The family, the Robinson family, lived on the island every summer until 1948 when, Anne Holdship Robinson, the last owner of the home passed away.

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA
This is a side view of the summer cottage located on Bluff Island. The home overlooks the St. Lawrence River and faces south towards mainland New York. The current owners are currently restoring the home, which includes replacing some of the shingles that are beyond repair.

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA
This is a close-up of the shingles seen under the covered porch area. The porch wraps around the first floor of the home. Shingles in the porch area are being saved because they are in such wonderful condition and show minimum weathering.

This seemed like a great opportunity to show off some wonderful images of shingle-style homes I’ve seen throughout my adventures. Looking through my photo collections, I realized almost all of my images of shingle style properties are located in the Thousand Islands, which is unsurprising because the style is commonly found in seaside summer resort areas such as Newport, Long Island, Nantucket, Martha’s Vineyard, and the Thousand Islands.

The shingle-style, which is sometimes considered the “seaside style,” evolved and borrowed elements from other 19th century architectural styles such as Queen Anne, Colonial Revival, and even Richardsonian Romanesque.i

These shingle-style homes were typically built as summer cottages for America’s elite who had the means to build homes that would only be lived in a few months of the year. Architects who received commissions to design these homes included McKim, Mead, and White, H. H. Richardson, and William Ralph Emerson.ii

These architects designed homes that varied greatly because of the influence of elements from Queen Anne and Colonial Revival styles: porches, asymmetrical massing, gambrel roofs, columns, Romanesque arches, irregular shapes, and towers could all be seen on Shingle style homes.iii The key element that hold all of these architectural parts together, are the extensive use of wooden shingles for exterior cladding. The use of the wooden shingles created a sense of a smooth, uninterrupted surface of these massive, irregular homes without getting caught up on the details.iv

The following images highlight a number of shingle-style buildings I have seen in the Thousand Islands and there is one home located in Potsdam, NY that does incorporate shingles.

If you have any awesome shingle-style homes in your neighbor share them in the comments below!

Footnotes:

i. Mark Gelerneter, A History of American Architecture: Buildings in Their Cultural and Technological Context (Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 2001), 181.

ii. Ibid.

iii. Virginia and Lee McAlester, A Field Guide to American Houses (New York: Alfred A. Knopp, Inc., 1991), 290.

iv. Gelerneter, 181.